• Research Article

    ROS-mediated Lignin Biosynthesis is Associated with Cell Wall Expansion in Asian Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) During Fruit Development and Ripening
    Bok-Rye Lee, Yun-Jun Baek, Seung Gon Wi, Ung Yang, and Sang-Hyun Lee
    Fruit growth and development is regulated by cell expansion, which is a culmination of balanced cell stiffening and loosening. Reactive oxygen species … + READ MORE
    Fruit growth and development is regulated by cell expansion, which is a culmination of balanced cell stiffening and loosening. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial factors regulating cell expansion. In the present study, we investigated how cell wall expansion is regulated by ROS homeostasis in two Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars with different maturity periods. ROS production, lignin contents, peroxidase activity, and gene expression levels were measured during pear fruit development and ripening. An increase in fruit fresh weight was observed 72 and 87 days after full bloom (DAFB) in early-maturing cultivar ‘Wonhwang’ and late-maturing cultivar ‘Niitaka’, respectively; the former exhibited higher weights than the latter until 132 DAFB. In both cultivars, ROS (O2•– and H2O2) content gradually decreased up to 132 DAFB; higher levels were detected in ‘Niitaka’ than in ‘Wonhwang’, which was consistent with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. H2O2-induced lignin content decreased after maintaining a high level up to 87 DAFB in ‘Niitaka’, whereas it continued to decrease during fruit development and ripening after 57 DAFB in ‘Wonhwang’. In ‘Niitaka’, activities of lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes, guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and coniferyl alcohol peroxidase (CPOX), rapidly decreased from 102 to 132 DAFB, but remained higher than those in ‘Wonhwang’; this result was consistent with the expression patterns of peroxidase genes (PpPOX1 and PpPOX4). The expression level of the cell wall loosening-related gene, expansin 1 (PpEXP1), was elevated only in the middle stage of fruit development and ripening, while the expression level of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases 1 (PpXET1) rapidly increased after 57 and 87 DAFB in ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Niitaka’, respectively. These results indicate that ROS-mediated lignin synthesis through peroxidase is associated with cell wall expansion in Pyrus pyrifolia. - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Characteristics and Validation of a Recommended Fertilization Approach for Lychee Based on Yield Response and Agronomic Efficiency
    Yi, Qiong123, Li, Guoliang123, Tang, Shuanhu123, Huang, Xu123, Pang, Yuwan123 and Zhang, Mu123*
    Lychee is one of the most popular tropical fruits in South China. However, excess fertilizer application is reducing soil productivity and lychee … + READ MORE
    Lychee is one of the most popular tropical fruits in South China. However, excess fertilizer application is reducing soil productivity and lychee production. Little information is available to develop a rational and feasible recommended fertilization approach for lychee. This study aimed to optimize fertilizer management for lychee production with a nutrient recommendation model that simplifies complex principles of fertilization into a user-friendly “nutrient expert (NE)” system. Analyses of extensive database for lychee revealed that the average yield responses (YRs) of lychee to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 4.2 t ha-1, 3.0 t ha-1, and 4.3 t ha-1, respectively. The average relative yields (RYs) of lychee for N, P, and K were 0.73, 0.80, and 0.77, respectively. The mean values of soil indigenous nutrient supply for N, P, and K were 52.4 kg ha-1, 5.7 kg ha-1, and 44.2 kg ha-1, respectively. The average agronomic efficiencies (AEs) were 15.8 kg N kg-1, 62.8 kg P kg-1, and 18.2 kg K kg-1, respectively. The YR and AE of N, P and K were well fitted by quadratic equations. Significant negative exponential correlations were detected between the YR and the indigenous nutrient supply. A significant negative linear correlation was detected between YR and RY in lychee production. In validation experiments, the NE approach outperformed farmers’ practices in terms of yield, output-input ratio, the net return, and N use efficiency. The NE system is a feasible approach to making fertilization recommendations for small-scale lychee farmers without the need for testing. - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Rootstock Performance of Cherry Tomatoes Grown in Soil Cultivation: Evaluation of Growth, Yield, and Photosynthesis

    토경재배 방울토마토 접목묘의 생육 및 수량, 광합성에 따른 대목 성능 분석

    Lee, Hyewon12, Lee, Jun Gu2, Cho, Myeong Cheoul3, Hwang, Indeok4, Hong, Kue Hyon1, Kwon, Deok Ho1 and Ahn, Yul Kyun1*

    이혜원, 이준구, 조명철, 황인덕, 홍규현, 권덕호, 안율균

    Grafted seedlings have widely been used in fruit vegetables such as tomatoes in order to increase productivity by acquiring resistance to environmental …

    접목묘는 생물적·비생물적 스트레스 피해 저감 및 세력 유지를 통한 수량 증대 효과를 위해 토마토와 같은 과채류에서 폭넓게 이용되고 있다. 본 연구는 토경재배 …

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    Grafted seedlings have widely been used in fruit vegetables such as tomatoes in order to increase productivity by acquiring resistance to environmental stress and soil-borne diseases. This study was conducted to assess the performance of rootstocks by comparatively analyzing the growth, yield, and photosynthetic efficiency, by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, in cherry tomatoes grown in soil cultivation. The cherry tomato variety ‘Nonari’ was used as the scion. The domestic rootstock cultivars ‘Powerguard’, ‘IT173773’, ‘20LM’, and a control cultivar ‘B-blocking’ were grafted with the scion. When using the rootstock cultivar ‘20LM’ grafted with cherry tomato ‘Nonari’, the yield was 15% higher than the yield using the control rootstock cultivar, and the performance index based on the absorption (PIABS), which is an index of plant vitality, was as much as 3.260 higher with ‘20LM’ than with the control rootstock even in the low temperature period. The rootstock ‘20LM’ maintained the plant vigor with balanced growth until the late harvest because its photosynthetic efficiency was high even when exposed to cold stress in the early stage. The growth strength of the non-grafted cherry tomato decreased to 7.3mm at 80 days after planting. The grafted cherry tomatoes had greater cold stress tolerance than the non-grafted cherry tomatoes because they had stronger roots. In contrast, the non-grafted cherry tomato plants were damaged by cold, which inhibited growth and led to a decrease in fruit yield. When ‘Powerguard’ and ‘IT173773’ were grafted with the scion, the yield was low, which might have been due to the low photosynthetic efficiency in the late harvest stage; the chlorophyll fluorescence OJIP transients (OJIP curves) of the plants with ‘Powerguard’ and ‘IT173773’ rootstocks were lower than those of the other grafted plants. There was a significant relationship between plant growth, yield, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Therefore, photosynthetic efficiency can be used to screen the performance of rootstocks.


    접목묘는 생물적·비생물적 스트레스 피해 저감 및 세력 유지를 통한 수량 증대 효과를 위해 토마토와 같은 과채류에서 폭넓게 이용되고 있다. 본 연구는 토경재배 시 방울토마토 대목의 종류에 따라 나타나는 생육과 수량을 비교 분석하고 엽록소형광으로 측정한 광합성 효율을 평가하여 대목의 성능을 검정하고자 수행하였다. 대목 실험재료는 국내 개발 품종 및 계통 ‘Powerguard’, ‘IT173773’, ‘20LM’ 및 대조 품종 ‘B-blocking’을 사용하였으며, 접수 실험재료와 비접목처리구로 방울토마토 품종 ‘Nonari’를 사용하였다. 접목처리구 ‘20LM’의 주당 총 수량은 1,339g으로 대조 대목 품종인 ‘B-blocking’보다 15% 더 많았고, 접목처리구 ‘Powerguard’와 ‘IT173773’의 주당 총 수량은 1,013g과 997g으로 적었다. 저온기에 비접목처리구의 생장강도는 7.3mm로 낮았고 ‘20LM’은 9.9mm를 높았다. 작물의 전반적인 활력도를 나타내는 엽록소형광 지수 PIABS를 측정한 결과, 비접목처리구는 1.498로 낮았고 ‘20LM’은 3.260으로 높았다. ‘20LM’은 대목의 뿌리 활력으로 인해 저온에 내성이 있으나 비접목처리구는 저온 피해를 받아 광합성 효율이 떨어져 생장강도가 감소한 것으로 판단된다. ‘20LM’은 생육 초기에 저온에 노출되었음에도 광합성 효율이 높아 균형된 생장을 유지하여 생육 후기까지 작물 세력이 강해 총 수량이 많은 것으로 판단된다. 처리 간의 생육과 수량의 정도가 엽록소형광 수치와 일치하는 양상을 보여 광합성 효율을 측정함으로써 대목 종류에 따른 성능을 분석할 수 있는 것으로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Analysis of the Relationship between Sweet Pepper Stem Growth and Labor Load

    파프리카의 줄기 생장과 노동부하의 관계 분석

    Lee, Jeong Hyun1**, Myeong, Dong Ju2**, Shin, Gyoung Ho3, Kim, Kyu Ha4, Lee, Beom-Seon5, Jeon, Yong Hwan2 and Park, Gyu Hyeon1*

    이정현, 명동주, 신경호, 김규하, 이범선, 전용환, 박규현

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between days after planting or growing degree days (GDD) and the number of labor hours …

    본 연구는 상용화된 유리온실에서 재배되는 파프리카의 정식 후 일수와 생육도일(growing degree days, GDD)에 따른 유인, 정지, 수확 작업의 투여되는 노동시간과 초장과의 관계를 …

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    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between days after planting or growing degree days (GDD) and the number of labor hours spent on stem training, pruning, and harvesting of sweet pepper cultivated in commercial glass greenhouses. A model was developed for estimating the labor hours according to plant height. In three large-scale (>1 ha) glass greenhouse sites (1, 2, and 3), the weekly stem growth in height, number of fruit, and yield were measured manually for sweet pepper and other solanaceous crops, and different types of labor hours were recorded by a labor management system during the cultivation period. The percentage of labor hours spent on stem training, pruning, and harvesting was high for sweet pepper, at 70.4% of the total labor hours in greenhouse cultivation management. There was a significant relationship between stem elongation rate and days after planting (p = 0.008) but not between stem elongation rate and GDD (p = 0.331). Consequently, to reach a stem length of 15 cm, the GDD needs to be 148.5°Cd. Fruit production per unit area showed a significant linear relationship with GDD, and the rate was the highest at site 2, where the average temperature was higher than that at the other sites. The ratio of labor hours per 1,000 m2 for pruning and harvesting was 38.7% and 33.3% at site 1, 46.5% and 30.1% at site 2, and 41.6% and 32.7% at site 3, respectively. Delayed side-stem pruning after stem training requires a high labor load, indicating a difference in labor demand according to the crop growth status of each greenhouse. In site 2, the higher daily temperature resulted in a higher stem elongation rate; consequently, the number of days to reach a stem length of 15 cm was shorter in this site than in the other sites. There was a strong positive relationship between stem length and labor hours spent on stem training, pruning, and harvesting (r > 0.98), and a significant linear relationship was also observed between labor hours and the increase in stem height (p < 0.01). The result of this study is a model that can predict the labor hours required per unit area using the time coefficients of each work stage based on the change in the stem growth rate to GDD.


    본 연구는 상용화된 유리온실에서 재배되는 파프리카의 정식 후 일수와 생육도일(growing degree days, GDD)에 따른 유인, 정지, 수확 작업의 투여되는 노동시간과 초장과의 관계를 분석하고, 초장에 따른 노동시간을 추정하기 위한 모델을 개발하였다. 대규모 파프리카 유리온실(site 1, 2, 3; 1ha 이상)에서 재배과정에 투여되는 작업종류에 따른 작업시간은 인력관리 프로그램을 통해 수집하였고 생장량, 착과량, 수확량을 조사하였다. 가지과 채소류의 여러 작업 단계 중 파프리카의 유인, 측지 정지, 수확에 투여된 노동시간의 총 비율은 70.4%로 가장 높았으며, 온실 재배관리에 있어서 전체노동시간 대비 3가지 작업에 투여되는 노동시간의 비율이 가장 높았다. 정식 후 일수에 따른 파프리카 초장의 신장율은 온실에 따라 유의적인 차이를 나타냈으나(p = 0.008), 세 온실에서 생육도일에 따른 초장의 신장율은 유의적 차이가 없었으며(p = 0.331), 초장이 15cm 신장에 필요한 생육도일은 148.5°Cd이었다. 단위면적당 수확량은 생육도일과 유의적인 선형관계를 나타냈으며, 평균온도가 높은 site 2에서 GDD에 따른 수확량의 증가율이 가장 높았다. 유인, 정지 및 수확작업의 1,000m2 당 노동시간에서 측지 정지와 수확에 투입되는 각각 노동시간의 비율이 각 온실별로 site 1은 38.7%와 33.3%, site 2는 46.5%와 30.1%, 그리고 site 3는 41.6%와 32.7%로 수확시간보다 측지 정지작업에 노동부하가 더 높았다. 유인 후 측지 제거가 지연되면 더 많은 노동력이 투입되어, 각 온실의 작물 생육상태에 따라 노동력 소요에 차이를 나타냈다. 초장의 신장율이 높은 온실의 경우 재배기간의 24시간 평균온도가 다른 온실보다 높게 나타났다. 초장과 재배관리 작업인 유인, 정지와 단위면적당 수확량은 강한 정의 상관(r > 0.98)을 나타냈고, 초장 증가에 따른 노동 시간도 유의적인 선형관계를 나타냈다(p < 0.01). 본 연구 결과는 생육도일에 따른 초장의 생장량 변화와 초장의 신장량 변화에 따른 작업단계별 시간계수를 이용하여 단위면적 당 노동시간을 예측할 수 있는 모델로서, 온실내부 평균온도에 따른 수확, 적심, 유인작업들의 간격과 이에 따른 작업소요시간을 예측할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Climate between a Semi-closed and Conventional Greenhouse in the Winter Season

    동절기 반밀폐형 온실과 일반형 온실의 시설 내부 기상 환경 비교

    Jeon, Yong Hwan1**, Kim, Eun Ji2**, Ju, Se Hun2, Myung, Dong-Ju3, Kim, Kyu Ha4, Lee, Soung Ju5 and Na, Haeyoung67*

    전용환, 김은지, 주세훈, 명동주, 김규하, 이성주, 나해영

    This study analyzed and compared the air temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, solar radiation, and electricity consumption data collected from the climate …

    본 연구에서는 동절기 반밀폐형 온실과 일반형 온실의 환경제어 프로그램에서 수집된 온도, 습도, CO2, 광, 에너지 사용량을 비교 분석하였다. 반밀폐형 온실과 …

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    This study analyzed and compared the air temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, solar radiation, and electricity consumption data collected from the climate control software of a semi-closed and a conventional greenhouse in the winter season. There was no difference in the daytime temperature between the semi-closed and the conventional greenhouse, but there was a statistically significant difference in night temperature, which was 18.0 ± 0.8°C for the conventional greenhouse and 18.8 ± 0.8°C for the semi-closed greenhouse. As the outside temperature decreased, the difference became larger in January. The change in the daytime humidity deficit (HD) with respect to the amount of global radiation was significantly different between the two greenhouses; it was 0.08 g·kg-1 for the semi-closed greenhouse and 0.15 g·kg-1 for the conventional greenhouse per 1 MJ·m-2 of radiation. As a result of comparing the average 24-hour HD in the two greenhouses, it was found that the humidity in the conventional greenhouse was higher and the coefficient of variation was much larger, indicating a large deviation in the humidity change. There was no difference in the average daytime CO2 concentration between the two greenhouses, but at night, there was a significant difference; it was 682.1 ± 103.7 ppm in the conventional greenhouse and 762.7 ± 107.4 ppm in the semi-closed greenhouse. In winter, the average electricity consumption was 13.8 kWh·m-2 in the semi-closed greenhouse and 15.3 kWh·m-2 in the conventional greenhouse; it was significantly higher in the conventional greenhouse. These results suggest that the semi-closed greenhouse has a high energy efficiency and is capable of uniform crop growth by stably maintaining the internal climate environment of the facility.


    본 연구에서는 동절기 반밀폐형 온실과 일반형 온실의 환경제어 프로그램에서 수집된 온도, 습도, CO2, 광, 에너지 사용량을 비교 분석하였다. 반밀폐형 온실과 일반형 온실의 주간 온도는 차이가 없었으나 야간온도에서는 일반형 온실 18.0 ± 0.8°C, 반밀폐형 온실 18.8 ± 0.8°C로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 발생하였으며 외부 온도가 낮았던 1월에는 일반형 온실의 온도가 낮아지며 그 차이가 더 커졌다. 외부 광량에 대한 주간 수분 부족분의 변화는 누적 광량 1MJ·m-2당 반밀폐형 온실은 0.08g·kg-1, 일반형 온실은 0.15g·kg-1의 차이가 발생해 일반형 온실의 습도가 광량의 변화에 대한 영향을 크게 받았다. 두 온실의 24시간 수분부족분의 평균을 비교한 결과 일반형 온실의 습도가 높았으며 변동 계수도 훨씬 커 습도 변화의 편차가 큰 것으로 나타났다. 주간 평균 CO2 농도는 두 온실 간에 차이가 없었으나 야간에는 일반형 온실 682.1 ± 103.7ppm, 반밀폐형 온실 762.7 ± 107.4ppm로 차이가 인정되었다. 동절기 단위 면적당 평균 전기 사용량은 반밀폐형 온실에서 13.8kWh·m-2, 일반형 온실은 15.3kWh·m-2로 일반형 온실이 높았다. 따라서, 반밀폐형 온실이 에너지 효율이 높고 시설 내부 환경을 안정적으로 유지하여 균일한 작물 생육이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Minimization of 1-Methylcyclopropene Concentration to Regulate Cell Wall Metabolism of ‘Arisoo’ and ‘Picnic’ Apples in Cold Storage
    Jung-Geun Kwon, Jingi Yoo, Nay Myo Win, The-Thiri Maung, Aung Htay Naing, Young-Je Cho, Hee-Young Jung, and In-Kyu Kang
    Cell wall constituents and cell wall hydrolase (CWH) enzyme activities play crucial roles in extending the postharvest storability of apples. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) … + READ MORE
    Cell wall constituents and cell wall hydrolase (CWH) enzyme activities play crucial roles in extending the postharvest storability of apples. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been extensively used to regulate cell wall metabolism of apples during storage. However, the consequences of 1-MCP can differ according to its concentration and the cultivar being treated. In this study, we investigated how 1-MCP concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 µL·L-1) regulate the cell wall components and the activities of CWH in two new apple cultivars, ‘Arisoo’ and ‘Picnic’, during their cold storage. In 1-MCP-treated fruits, uronic acid (UAC) and total sugar contents (TSC) were significantly higher in ‘Arisoo’, but only UAC was significantly higher in ‘Picnic’, when compared with control fruits. 1-MCP significantly inhibited CWH activities in both cultivars. The results observed between 0.5 and 1.0 µL·L-1 did not diverge obviously in ‘Arisoo’, however, 0.5 µL·L-1 generated better results over 1.0 µL·L-1 in ‘Picnic’. Conclusively, the results suggest that it is economically more appropriate to use 0.5 µL·L-1 1-MCP to extend the postharvest storability of apples, especially ‘Arisoo’, because of its ability to delay the solubilization of fruit softening-related cell wall components and to suppress CWH enzyme activities. - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Identification of Putative Parental Species of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. Ex Tanaka) by Comparative Analyses of Variations in Chloroplast Genomes and Nuclear Single-copy Genes of Citrus
    Hyeonju Jeong, Young Bok Yun, Seung Yong Jeong, Younsup Cho, and Sunggil Kim
    Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. Ex Tanaka) is one of the most important Citrus species in China, Japan, and Korea. Yuzu is … + READ MORE
    Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. Ex Tanaka) is one of the most important Citrus species in China, Japan, and Korea. Yuzu is assumed to be a natural hybrid. However, concrete evidence supporting its hybrid origin has not been reported yet. To identify putative maternal species, the nucleotide sequences of five hypervariable regions covering 17,531 bp in citrus chloroplast genomes were obtained from yuzu. A phylogenetic tree based on these sequences showed that yuzu was most closely related to Ichang papeda (C. cavaleriei), suggesting that Ichang papeda might be a seed parent of yuzu. To identify paternal species, yuzu homologs of 103 single-copy genes found among citrus genomes were identified from a yuzu transcriptome that was de novo assembled using RNA-seq reads. Eighty homologous genes were identified from the yuzu transcriptome. A phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequence variations in 80 single-copy genes of yuzu and other Citrus species showed that yuzu was most closely related to mandarin. To assess hybrid origins of 80 single-copy genes, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among yuzu, Ichang papeda, mandarin, citron, and pummelo were analyzed, and yuzu SNP genotypes were identified by visual investigation of alignments of RNA-seq reads. Forty-three out of 80 genes were assumed to originate from hybrids between Ichang papeda and mandarin. Taken together, results of this study indicate that Ichang papeda and mandarin might be the parental species of yuzu. - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022
  • Research Article

    Shoot Proliferation, Rooting, and Genetic Stability of Six Micropropagated Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genotypes
    Allatif, Abdou Abd1 and Hmmam, Ibrahim1*
    This research aimed to explore the effect of zeatin (6-γ,γ-dimethylallyl-amino) concentration on the in vitro shoot proliferation of six olive (Olea … + READ MORE
    This research aimed to explore the effect of zeatin (6-γ,γ-dimethylallyl-amino) concentration on the in vitro shoot proliferation of six olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars, ‘Aggizi Shami,’ ‘Coratina,’ ‘Frantoio,’ ‘Manzanillo,’ ‘Picual,’ and ‘Toffahi.’ The six olive cultivars were reproduced via in vitro multiplication on Rugini olive medium (OM) with three zeatin concentrations (2, 4, and 6 mg L-1) for six subcultures. The ‘Aggizi Shami’ and ‘Toffahi’ cultivars had the highest shoot numbers. Increasing zeatin concentration improved propagation. The best response was recorded for OM supplemented with zeatin at 6 mg·L-1; this treatment resulted in high values for the numbers of shoots, leaves, and internodes. Then, the rooting ability of shoots was analyzed using two different rooting methods. The regenerated shoots were successfully rooted on ½OM supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), with the ‘Coratina’ and ‘Picual’ cultivars having the highest rooting percentages. The response of shoots to the two rooting methods was genotype-dependent. Rooting in OM with IBA was more successful than dipping in IBA. Based on the shoot growth and rooting potential of the olive cultivars, ‘Coratina’ and ‘Picual’ were the most adaptable cultivars to the in vitro conditions, followed by ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Manzanillo.’ ‘Aggizi Shami’ and ‘Toffahi’ were recalcitrant cultivars to the in vitro conditions, as they exhibited low rooting potential. After six subcultures, the genetic stability of the six olive cultivars was determined. “Manzanillo” showed the highest genetic stability index (96%), while ‘Toffahi’ recorded the lowest value (85%), based on the start codon targeted (SCoT) data analysis. - COLLAPSE
    31 August 2022