• Research Article

    Effects of Bloom Thinning with Lime Sulfur on Fruit Set, Yield, and Fruit Quality Attributes of ‘RubyS’ Apples
    Nay Myo Win, Dongyong Lee, Juhyeon Park, Yang-Yik Song, Young Sik Cho, Youngsuk Lee, Moo-Yong Park, Hun Joong Kweon, In-Kyu Kang, and Jong-Chul Nam
    Bloom thinning is an important practice that influences the profitability of the orchard. Hence, we assessed the effect of chemical bloom thinning … + READ MORE
    Bloom thinning is an important practice that influences the profitability of the orchard. Hence, we assessed the effect of chemical bloom thinning on thinning efficiency and fruit quality of ‘RubyS’ apples. Lime sulfur was applied as a bloom thinning agent at 1, 1 + 3, and 2 + 4 days after full bloom (DAFB), and non-bloom thinning trees were used as controls. Compared to the control and bloom thinning treatments at 1 DAFB and 2 + 4 DAFB, the application of bloom thinning at 1 + 3 DAFB greatly decreased the number of fruits per cluster in both terminal and lateral flowers. Although the application of bloom thinning at 2 + 4 DAFB decreased the number of fruits per cluster in the terminal flower, it did not affect the number of fruits per cluster in the lateral flower when compared to the control. At harvest, the number of fruits per tree (fruits/ tree) and yield (kg/ tree) was significantly higher in control trees than in bloom-thinned trees. However, fruit quality attributes including fruit weight and size, flesh firmness, soluble solids content, area of red-blushed surface, and a* value in the fruit were significantly improved by bloom thinning at 1 + 3 DAFB. Therefore, this study suggested that applying bloom thinning at 1 + 3 DAFB could serve as an effective thinning treatment to manage crop load in trees and improve the quality of ‘RubyS’ apple fruits. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    Responses of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity to Different Fertilizer and Soil Moisture Conditions in Relation to Cold Resistance in Zanthoxylum armatum
    Jiangtao Fan, Jingyan Wang, Xianzhi Liu, Changping Zhao, Chaobing Zhou, Tasheen Saba, Jiaojiao Wu, Wenkai Hui, and Wei Gong
    Zanthoxylum armatum, known as green prickly ash, is a major condiment species planted on a large scale in southwest China. However, … + READ MORE
    Zanthoxylum armatum, known as green prickly ash, is a major condiment species planted on a large scale in southwest China. However, its limited cold tolerance has been a significant disadvantage for its cultivation in low-temperature regions. To better understand the antioxidant enzyme activities related to cold resistance, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content were investigated under 16 fertilizer and soil moisture treatments to explore the cold resistance response mechanism in Z. armatum. The results showed that low temperatures could significantly affect antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves of Z. armatum seedlings. The antioxidant enzyme activities of seedlings treated with soil moisture and fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than those without fertilizer. Furthermore, the comprehensive evaluation index (CEI) was positively correlated with SOD, POD, and CAT activities but negatively correlated with MDA content. Meanwhile, the treatment T12 (60% field water capacity + 300 kg·ha-1 nitrogen + 30 kg·ha-1 phosphoric anhydride) had the highest CEI value, whereas T1 (20% water capacity) had the lowest. Based on the regression equation for CEI improvement, the predicted optimal levels for field water capacity (FWC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were 59.6%–63.4% FWC (average 61.5%), 114.2–248.8 kg N/ha (average 181.5 kg N/ha), 40.1–108.5 kg P2O5/ha (average 74.3 kg P2O5/ha), and 200.2–254.4 kg K2O/ha (average 227.3 kg K2O/ha), respectively. The present study provides the optimal soil moisture and fertilizer concentration required to enhance protective enzyme activity and low-temperature tolerance, which is crucial for improving cold resistance in Z. armatum. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    Effects of Shade Treatment on Plant Growth Characteristics, Phenolic Contents, and Antioxidant Activities of All-Male Cultivars of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
    Thi Luyen Cao, Rayhan Ahmed Shawon, Nathan Cho, Tae Heon Lee, Baul Ko, Ho Cheol Kim, Jong Hyang Bae, and Yang Gyu Ku
    This study examined the effects of 30% and 70% shading on the growth characteristics, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of three male … + READ MORE
    This study examined the effects of 30% and 70% shading on the growth characteristics, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of three male cultivars (Atticus, Avalim, and Herkolim) of asparagus grown in a rain-shelter house. The 70% shading treatment significantly increased the shoot elongation rate of all three male cultivars compared with the control and 30% shade treatments. Compared with the control treatment, 30% shading increased the shoot production rate and bud number of the Atticus and Avalim cultivars. Most of the plant growth characteristics of the Herkolim cultivar were not affected by the 30% shade treatment, except root diameter. Polyphenol contents in all three cultivars were significantly decreased under the 30% shade treatment compared with that in the plants under the control and 70% shade treatments. The Atticus cultivar had a higher polyphenol content than that in the Avalim and Herkolim cultivars under shade treatments. The flavonoid contents in Atticus and Avalim plants under the 30% shade treatment were lower than that in plants under the control treatment. Compared with the control treatment, the 30% shade treatment significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase as well as the 2,2'-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) free-radical scavenging activity of Atticus and Herkolim. Under the 30% shade treatment, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the Atticus cultivar were significantly higher than those in the Avalim cultivar. The results suggest that the 30% shade treatment can be applied in the cultivation of the Atticus cultivar to improve spear production in the following season and minimize decreases in phenolic content. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    Growth Responses of Korean Endemic Hosta minor under Sub-Optimal Artificial Lighting

    실내 저광 조건에서 한국 특산 좀비비추의 생장 반응

    Ha Ram Yang, Yeon Ju Park, Min Ji Kim, Je Yeon Yeon, and Wan Soon Kim

    양하람, 박연주, 김민지, 연제연, 김완순

    To check the availability of indoor plants, we investigated the growth and photo-physiological responses in Korean endemic Hosta minor for three months …

    한국 특산식물 좀비비추(Hosta minor)의 실내 이용을 위해 저광 조건(10, 30, 50µmol·m-2·s-1; L10, L30, L50)에서 3개월 간 …

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    To check the availability of indoor plants, we investigated the growth and photo-physiological responses in Korean endemic Hosta minor for three months of artificial low light conditions (10, 30, and 50 μmol·m-2·s-1, abbreviated as L10, L30, and L50). In the L10 treatment, the growth indicators leaf number and size, shoot biomass, and tillering capacity declined by 20–50% decline from the initial values, and those were maintained or slightly increased in the L30 treatment and significantly increased to 200–300% in the L50 treatment. The light use efficiency values supported this result, which were –0.12, 0.04, and 0.16 in L10, L30, and L50, respectively. Growth adaptation to the indoor artificial lighting took four to six weeks. Net photosynthesis also decreased from the initial value after four weeks but increased in the ninth week, showing significant differences among the different light intensity levels. The light compensation point was 17 ± 6.16 μmol·m-2·s-1, and the light saturation point ranged from 200 to 350 μmol·m-2·s-1. Regardless of the light intensity, the Fv/Fm values were 0.79 to 0.83, indicating a normal level, and the OJIP curve also showed no significant difference. These results indicate that the low light intensity of 10 μmol·m-2·s-1 did not damage photosystem II but gradually negatively affected the growth of Hosta minor. We concluded that the minimum light intensity is 10 to 30 μmol·m-2·s-1 in Hosta minor and requires four weeks of low light adaptation.


    한국 특산식물 좀비비추(Hosta minor)의 실내 이용을 위해 저광 조건(10, 30, 50µmol·m-2·s-1; L10, L30, L50)에서 3개월 간 생장 반응과 광 생리 특성을 조사하였다. 잎과 지상부, 분얼 생장 모두 초기생장(0주차)과 비교하여 L10에서는 증가 없이 오히려 감소하였고(20–50%), L30에서는 유지되거나 약간 증가하였으며(10–50%), L50에서는 200–300% 수준으로 현저하게 늘어났다. 처리기간 동안 건물 증가율은 L10, L30, L50에서 –20%, 10%, 90%, 광이용효율 역시 –0.12, 0.04, 0.16으로 나타났다. 순광합성량은 4주차 때는 초기값(0주차)보다 오히려 감소하였으나, 9주차 이후 증가하며 처리간 유의한 차이를 보였다. 평균 광보상점은 17 ± 6.16µmol·m-2·s-1, 광포화점은 200–350µmol·m-2·s-1로 측정되었다. 광도와 관계없이 모든 처리구 Fv/Fm 값은 0.79–0.83으로 정상 수준을 나타냈고, OJIP 곡선 역시 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이상에서 10µmol·m-2·s-1 저광도 조건은 광계Ⅱ 손상을 가져오지는 않았으나, 생장을 억제시키는 비생물적 스트레스 요인으로 작동하였다. 결론적으로 좀비비추의 실내 이용을 위해서는 4주간의 적응이 필요하며, 한계 광도는 10–30µmol·m-2·s-1로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    Nanobubble and Ozone Nanobubble Treatments Increase the Vase Life of Cut Cymbidium ‘Spring Pearl’
    You Kyung Chung, Ah Ram Cho, Myung Syun Shim, and Yoon Jin Kim
    Here, we tested if nanobubble (NB) and ozone nanobubble (O3NB) treatments are effectively prolong the vase life of cut Cymbidium … + READ MORE
    Here, we tested if nanobubble (NB) and ozone nanobubble (O3NB) treatments are effectively prolong the vase life of cut Cymbidium. The cut flowers of the Cymbidium cultivar ‘Spring Pearl’ were subjected to tap water (TW, control) and two levels of NB and O3NB treatments. We investigated the water uptake, relative fresh weight (RFW), senescence rate, petal color, and vase life. The ozone (O3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were 0.0 and 10.0 mg∙L-1 (TW, control), 0.0 and 16.3 mg∙L-1 (NB 20%), 0.0 and 38.3 mg∙L-1 (NB 100%), 0.7 and 16.4 mg∙L-1 (O3NB 20%), and 3.8 and 38.3 mg∙L-1 (O3NB 100%), respectively. The water uptake and RFW were increased 1.4-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively, in cut Cymbidium treated with O3NB 20% on day 2 compared to the control. The a* value of petal color remained green, and the b* value of petal color remained yellow in cut Cymbidium treated with O3NB 20% relative to the other treatments. Vase life was prolonged by 1.4 days in cut Cymbidium treated with NB 20% and O3NB 20% compared to the control. This study demonstrates that NB 20% and O3NB 20% in the vase solution extend the vase life of cut Cymbidium. O3NB 20% treatment in the vase solution of cut Cymbidium ‘Spring Pearl’ resulted in the highest water uptake and RFW, and the lowest senescence rate retaining the vivid color. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    Alteration of Fruit Quality Attributes and Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymatic Activities in Cluster Tomatoes After Combination Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging During Cold Storage
    Si-Eun Byeon, Gon Ho Park, Jinhee Lee, Hnin Phyu Lwin, Mukhamad Su’udi, Jongkee Kim, and Jinwook Lee
    This study evaluates the combined effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cluster-type tomato cultivars. Here, … + READ MORE
    This study evaluates the combined effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cluster-type tomato cultivars. Here, we analyze the physiological and biochemical alterations that affect fruit characteristics during cold storage, including knuckle detachment force, ethylene production rate, and cell wall-degrading enzymatic activity. The optimum concentration of 1-MCP fumigation treatment to regulate fruit ripening after harvest was 1 μL·L-1. During storage at 10°C, the fruit of the ‘Amoroso’ cultivar performed better than those of the ‘Campari’ and ‘Aranca’ cultivars in terms of ethylene production, soluble solids content (SSC), and pericarp tissue firmness. The combination treatment with 1-MCP and MAP reduced the SSC level and retained the pericarp tissue firmness and knuckle detachment force in ‘Amoroso’ fruit in cold storage. Polypropylene (PP) MAP treatment alone did not affect the response to ethylene production during cold storage as significantly as the treatment with both 1-MCP and PP MAP. However, treatment with both 1-MCP and PP MAP retained the knuckle detachment force and delayed the alteration of O2 and CO2 composition, in contrast to PP MAP treatment alone. In addition, the enzymatic activities of polygalacturonase and cellulase remained unchanged when treated with 1-MCP and PP MAP. Therefore, combined application of 1-MCP and PP MAP is highly effective for retaining fruit quality of cluster-type tomato cultivars during cold storage. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Research Article

    A Bioassay for Testing Garlic Resistance to Leaf Blight Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium

    마늘잎마름병균(Stemphylium vesicarium)에 대한 효율적인 마늘의 저항성 검정법 개발

    Jin Ju Lee, Hun Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim, and Gyung Ja Choi

    이진주, 김헌, 김진철, 최경자

    Leaf blight caused by Stemphylium vesicarium is an important fungal disease of the Allium genus, which decreases the quality and seed yield …

    Stemphylium vesicarium에 의해서 발생하는 잎마름병은 마늘의 Allium 속의 작물에서 발생하는 곰팡이병으로, 마늘의 품질을 저하시키고 생산량을 감소하는 등 큰 피해를 주고 있다. …

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    Leaf blight caused by Stemphylium vesicarium is an important fungal disease of the Allium genus, which decreases the quality and seed yield of garlic (Allium sativum). To establish an efficient screening method for testing the resistance of garlic cultivars to S. vesicarium, we measured leaf blight development on garlic plants according to cultivar, plant growth stage, inoculum concentration, nutrient source contained in the spore suspension, and incubation temperature. We determined that the most efficient method to develop leaf blight on garlic plants involved the following procedures: First, garlic cloves were grown in horticultural soil and cultivated in a greenhouse (25 ± 5°C). Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were rubbed with bleached, nonabsorbent cotton and spray-inoculated with a spore suspension (3.0 × 105 spores/mL) of the fungus composed of sterilized 1/2 potato dextrose broth. The inoculated plants were incubated in a dew chamber at 20°C for 48 hours, and then the infected seedlings were cultured in a growth chamber at 25°C and 80% RH under 12-hour light per day. Seven days after inoculation, infected leaf area (%) was measured. Our screening system can be used to select resistant resources and develop S. vesicarium-resistant garlic cultivars.


    Stemphylium vesicarium에 의해서 발생하는 잎마름병은 마늘의 Allium 속의 작물에서 발생하는 곰팡이병으로, 마늘의 품질을 저하시키고 생산량을 감소하는 등 큰 피해를 주고 있다. 본 연구는 잎마름병에 대한 마늘의 저항성을 효과적으로 검정하기 위한 방법을 확립하기 위해, 마늘의 품종, 마늘의 생육 시기, 접종원의 농도, 접종원에 포함된 영양분 종류, 접종 후 배양 온도에 따른 마늘의 잎마름병 발생을 조사하였다. 실험한 결과로부터, 마늘의 잎마름병 저항성을 검정하기 위해서는 마늘 인편을 원예용 상토에 파종한 후, 온실(25 ± 5°C)에서 재배하여 준비한 4엽기 식물체에 접종 직전에 탈색한 비흡수성 재질의 솜으로 문지른 후에 멸균한 50% PDB로 수확한 S. vesicarium의 포자현탁액(3.0 × 105 spores/mL)을 분무하여 접종한다. 그리고 접종한 식물체를 20°C의 습실상에서 48시간 동안 습실 처리하고, 마늘 유묘를 25°C의 항온항습실(상대습도 80%)로 이동하여 하루에 12시간씩 광을 조사하면서 재배하고, 품종에 따라 접종 7–11일 후에 잎에 발생한 잎마름병의 병반면적율(%)을 조사하는 것을 제안하고자 한다. 본 연구에서 확립한 마늘 잎마름병 저항성 검정 방법은 잎마름병에 대한 저항성 육종 소재의 발굴 및 저항성 품종 개발에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

    - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • Cultivar and Germplasm Release

    Development of an interspecific hybrid between Hydrangea arborescens ‘Magical Pinkerbell’ and H. quercifolia JNHQ01

    수국 Hydrangea arborescens ‘Magical Pinkerbell’과 H. quercifolia JNHQ01의 종간 교잡 개발

    Seong-Hwa Bak and Tae-Ho Han

    박성화, 한태호

    Interspecific hybridization in Hydrangea is used to increase genetic diversity and to mix various traits for the development of cultivars. Hydrangea is …

    종간 교잡은 품종 개발을 위한 유전적 다양성을 넓힐 수 있고 다양한 형질을 섞을 수 있는 방법이다. 수국은 종간 교배 후 자방의 비대가 …

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    Interspecific hybridization in Hydrangea is used to increase genetic diversity and to mix various traits for the development of cultivars. Hydrangea is known to have post-fertilization barriers after fertilization, as growth of the ovary is confirmed after interspecies crossbreeding, and this can be overcome with embryo culture. In this experiment, interspecific hybridization (H. arborescens × H. quercifolia) was achieved by ovule culture to increase genetic diversity and to develop a plant that can serve as a bridge for crossing. Hybridization was confirmed using SSR markers. As a result, 10 interspecific hybrid plants were obtained after 483 embryos were cultured. These plants were similar to H. quercifolia in stem and plant shape, but the leaf shape was not similar to either the maternal plant (H. arborescens) or the paternal plant (H. quercifolia). Thus, a new type of leaf arose. Notably, only 2 plants had flowers with both pistil and stamens structurally, although the pollen germination rate was 0%. The shape of the inflorescence was lacecap, while maternal and paternal one was mophead and con-head type, respectively. These novel interspecific hybrids with traits from genetically remote species will be useful as genetic resources in Hydrangea breeding.


    종간 교잡은 품종 개발을 위한 유전적 다양성을 넓힐 수 있고 다양한 형질을 섞을 수 있는 방법이다. 수국은 종간 교배 후 자방의 비대가 확인되어 일반적으로 수정 후 장벽(Post-fertilization barriers)이 존재한다고 알려져 있고 배주 배양으로 극복 할 수 있다. 이에 본 실험에서는 종간 교배를 통한 유전적 다양성 확대와 종간 교배의 교량 식물 역할을 할 수 있는 식물체를 개발하기위해 H. arborescens × H. quercifolia의 종간 교배 후 배주 배양을 수행하였다. 혼종성은 SSR markers를 이용하여 확인하였다. 그 결과 483개의 배주를 배양하였고 9개의 종간 교잡 식물체를 획득하는데 성공하였다. 9개의 종간 교잡 식물은 줄기나 수형은 부본인 H. quercifolia와 비슷하였으나, 잎의 모양은 모본(H. arborescens), 부본(H. quercifolia)과 비슷하지 않았다. 특성조사서의 기준으로 설명할 수 없는 새로운 형태의 잎이 확인되었다. 또 종간 교잡 식물체 9개 중 단 2개의 식물에서 꽃이 확인되었으며, 그 꽃들은 구조적으로 암술과 수술이 모두 있었고 꽃가루도 발생되었으나 꽃가루의 발아율은 0%였다. 모본의 화서 형태는 원형이고 부본의 화서 형태는 원뿔형이나, 종간 교잡체의 화서 모양은 전혀 다른 편평형 화서가 나타났다. 새로운 형질을 지닌 종간 교잡 식물체로, 수국 육종에 유전자원으로 활용될 것으로 기대된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022