• Review

    Production of Grafted Vegetable Seedlings in the Republic of Korea: Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives
    Sewoong An, Jong Hyang Bae, Ho Cheol Kim, and Yurina Kwack
    Since the first commercial vegetable seedling production business was established in the Republic of Korea in 1992, technologies for the production of ... + READ MORE
    Since the first commercial vegetable seedling production business was established in the Republic of Korea in 1992, technologies for the production of vegetable grafted seedlings have been developed. Commercial grafting nurseries have promoted the efficiency of grafted seedling production by the selection and concentration strategy. At present, most scions and rootstocks are concentrated on one or two cultivars and all grafted seedlings are made by the splice grafting method. To overcome the disadvantages of the splice grafting method, such as delayed formation of the grafted union and delayed rooting, light-emitting diode (LED) healing chambers (LHCs) have been developed for enhancing grafted union formation, and are currently used in 20% of commercial grafting nurseries. The commercial grafting nurseries in Korea have been facing highly difficult situations because of climate change, increased seedling production cost and labor shortage. To confront this challengeable circumstance, it is essential to optimize grafted seedling production practices to produce high-quality seedlings at lower cost and low impact on the environment, and to ensure a consistent supply to vegetable growers year round. Here, we explored several practices to improve productivity and reduce the environmental impact of grafted seedling production, including the development of disease resistant or abiotic stress tolerant rootstock cultivars, the development of more precise and efficient facilities and cultivation systems such as a grafting robot, the application of a plant factory with artificial lighting, the improvement of light condition in LHCs, and wastewater reuse. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Potential Effects of Temperature Differences on the Soluble Sugar Content in Pear Fruit during the Growing Seasons of 2018 and 2019
    Jeong Hwa Cho, Ung Yang, Seung Gon Wi, Bok-Rye Lee, Seungwon Oh, Min-Soo Kim, and Sang-Hyun Lee
    The impacts of climate change on crop yields and fruit quality are projected to accelerate with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels; however ... + READ MORE
    The impacts of climate change on crop yields and fruit quality are projected to accelerate with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels; however, few studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on the accumulation pattern and content of soluble sugars in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit. We compared the soluble sugars content and accumulation patterns during the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons throughout the developmental stages of pear fruit with climate data collected over the same period. Between the two years, we observed differences in the fructose and sucrose contents at the maturation stage of the pear fruit, resulting from differences in sugar accumulation following 132 days after full bloom (DAFB). Differences were also found in the meteorological data measured over the two years. In particular, the daily average temperatures from late-June to mid-August (73 to 132 DAFB) were all higher in 2018 than in 2019, and differences in the cumulative amounts of both fructose and sucrose were observed since 132 DAFB. Notable differences were confirmed in the comparison of the meteorological variables for each time interval. Among the meteorological variables, those related to temperature showed clear differences between the two years. Correlation coefficient matrices showed that sucrose and fructose accumulation responded differently depending on the meteorological variables over the two years. Furthermore, only accumulated temperature and air temperature were correlated with changes in the sucrose and fructose content in 2018, unlike in 2019. Taken together, our results indicate that temperature differences may have contributed to differences in the fructose and sucrose contents and their accumulation patterns over the two years. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Changes in Growth, Nutrient Absorption Characteristics, and Glucosinolate Contents of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis) Grown in Reclaimed Land according to Irrigation with Different Salt Concentrations

    관개수 염 농도에 따른 간척지 재배 배추의 생장, 양분 흡수 및 글루코시놀레이트 함량 변화

    In-Bog Lee, Dae Ho Jung, Pyoung Ho Yi, Jun Gu Lee, and Shiva Ram Bhandari

    이인복, 정대호, 이평호, 이준구, 시바람반다리

    Reclaimed land contains a large amount of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in the soil, so it is necessary to select and ...

    농업용 토지로 사용되는 간척지에는 토양 내에 가용성염류와 치환성나트륨이 다량 함유되어 있기 때문에, 염 피해에 강한 내염성 작물을 선발하여 재배하는 것이 유리하다. 김치의 ...

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    Reclaimed land contains a large amount of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in the soil, so it is necessary to select and cultivate tolerant crops that are resistant against salt stress. Chinese cabbage, a staple ingredient in kimchi, is an important vegetable that accounts for most of the production area of leafy vegetables in Korea, but no cases have been reported of growing cabbages in reclaimed land to examine growth and glucosinolate content. The objective of this study was to analyze the growth, nutrient absorption characteristics, and glucosinolate content of Chinese cabbages grown in spring and autumn on reclaimed land with irrigation water with different salt concentrations. The salt concentrations of the irrigation water were 0, 2, and 4 dS∙m-1. Growth of spring and autumn Chinese cabbages did not change according to the salt concentration of the irrigation water, and only autumn Chinese cabbages showed an increase of Na content according to the salt concentration of the irrigation water. The total glucosinolate content tended to decrease when the salt concentration of irrigation water increased. The increase in salt concentration of irrigation water may reduce the bitterness of autumn Chinese cabbage. Here, it was confirmed that Chinese cabbage cultivation is possible even if the salt concentration of irrigation water reaches 4dS·m-1 on reclaimed land, and the glucosinolate content of autumn Chinese cabbage decreases when salt concentration increases.


    농업용 토지로 사용되는 간척지에는 토양 내에 가용성염류와 치환성나트륨이 다량 함유되어 있기 때문에, 염 피해에 강한 내염성 작물을 선발하여 재배하는 것이 유리하다. 김치의 재료인 배추는 국내 엽채류 생산 면적의 대부분을 차지하는 중요 채소이나, 간척지에서 배추를 재배하여 생장과 글루코시놀레이트 함량 등을 살펴본 사례가 보고되지 않았다. 본 연구에서는 간척지에서 관개수의 염 농도를 달리하여 재배한 봄 배추와 가을 배추의 생장과 양분 함량, 글루코시놀레이트 함량을 측정하였으며, 염 농도에 따른 변화를 분석하고자 하였다. 처리한 관개수의 염 농도는 각각 0과 2, 4dS·m-1의 세 가지로 구성되었다. 춘광 품종 봄 배추와 추월 품종 가을 배추를 재배하여 생장 지표와 양분 함량, 글루코시놀레이트 함량을 분석하였다. 봄과 가을 배추 모두 관개수의 염 농도 증가에 따른 생장 저하는 관찰되지 않았으며, 가을 배추에서만 관개수의 염 농도 증가에 따른 Na 함량 증가가 관찰되었다. 글루코시놀레이트 함량 분석 결과 총 글루코시놀레이트 함량은 관개수 염 농도가 증가함에 따라 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 관개수의 염 농도 증가로 인해 가을 배추의 쓴맛이 감소할 가능성이 확인되었다. 본 연구를 통해 간척지에서 관개수의 염 농도가 4dS·m-1에 이르더라도 배추 재배가 가능한 것을 확인하였으며, 염 농도의 증가에 따른 가을 배추의 글루코시놀레이트 함량이 감소함을 확인하였다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Enhancement of Growth and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities on Kimchi Cabbage by Melatonin Foliar Application under High Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    고온, 건조 스트레스 조건에서 멜라토닌 경엽처리에 의한 배추의 생장 및 항산화효소 활성 증대

    Jinhyoung Lee, Heeju Lee, Seunghwan Wi, Inho Yu, Kyung-Hwan Yeo, Sewoong An, Yoonah Jang, and Seonghoe Jang

    이진형, 이희주, 위승환, 유인호, 여경환, 안세웅, 장윤아, 장성회

    Melatonin, an indoleamine molecule, regulates a wide range of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis, and response of plants to abiotic stresses ...

    멜라토닌은 작물의 생장 및 분화 그리고 비생물적 환경 스트레스 조건에서 다양한 생리적 기능을 조절하는 물질로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 고온과 건조 스트레스 ...

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    Melatonin, an indoleamine molecule, regulates a wide range of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis, and response of plants to abiotic stresses. We examined the effect of exogenous melatonin application (5, 10, and 20 mg·L-1) on the growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of Kimchi cabbage under high temperature (air temperature 32/26°C) and drought stress (soil moisture 20–24%) conditions. Application of 10 mg·L-1 melatonin alleviated stress-induced growth inhibition and increased the shoot fresh weight and the leaf surface area of seedlings by 22.7% and 13.9%, respectively, compared to the control under the stress condition. Indeed, foliar application of melatonin at 10 mg·L-1 caused an increase of net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate under the stress condition. The lowest level of H2O2 content was also observed at 10 mg·L-1 concentration of melatonin treatment, while no significant alterations in lipid peroxidation or concentrations of malondialdehyde were detected by treatment with different concentrations of melatonin. In addition, significantly elevated activity levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured at 10 mg·L-1 melatonin treatment without significant changes in ascorbic acid (AsA) and proline contents under the stress condition. These results suggest that foliar application of 10 mg·L-1 melatonin ameliorates physiological damages caused by the combination of water deficit and heat stress and enhances the activity of the antioxidant enzymes such as APX and SOD, thereby improving tolerance against the water deficit and heat stress in Kimchi cabbage.


    멜라토닌은 작물의 생장 및 분화 그리고 비생물적 환경 스트레스 조건에서 다양한 생리적 기능을 조절하는 물질로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 고온과 건조 스트레스 조건에서 배추에 멜라토닌을 세가지 수준의 농도(5, 10 및 20mg·L-1)로 엽면 살포하고, 스트레스 경감에 효과적인 농도를 찾고자 하였다. 고온 및 건조 스트레스 조건에서, 10mg·L-1 농도의 멜라토닌 처리구의 생체중과 엽면적이 대조구에 비해 각각 22.7%와 13.9%씩 증가함을 확인하였다. 광합성 특성 측정결과, 10mg·L-1 처리구에서 광합성 속도와 증산율이 대조구에 비해 유의한 차이를 보이며 증가하였고, 과산화수소(H2O2) 함량도 가장 낮게 측정되었다. 반면, 여러 농도의 멜라토닌 처리에 의한 MDA함량변화는 관찰되지 않았다. 특히, 10mg·L-1 처리구에서 항산화효소인 ascorbate peroxidase(APX)와 superoxide dismutase(SOD)의 활성이 대조구에 비해 증가하지만, ascorbic acid(AsA) 및 proline의 함량은 변화를 보이지 않았다. 이러한 결과들을 종합해 볼 때, 10mg·L-1 농도의 멜라토닌 경엽처리는 배추의 항산화효소 활성을 증가시켜 고온 및 건조 스트레스 조건에서 배추 생장에 긍정적 효과를 유발함을 확인하였다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Axillary Bud Development of ‘Shine Muscat’ Grapevine by Treatment of 6-benzylaminopurine, Spermidine, and Light

    6-benzylaminopurine, Spermidine 및 빛 처리에 따른 ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도의 액아 발달

    Bo Min Kim, Jun Young Park, Myung Hee Jung, and Hee-Seung Park

    김보민, 박준영, 정명희, 박희승

    ‘Shine Muscat’ grape production is challenged by the frequent occurrence of empty branches that do not exhibit flowers on the shoot. Therefore ...

    ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도는 신초에서 꽃송이가 나오지 않는 빈가지 발생이 빈번하여 생산량이 감소되는 문제점을 가지고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도의 빈가지 발생을 경감시키고자 ...

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    ‘Shine Muscat’ grape production is challenged by the frequent occurrence of empty branches that do not exhibit flowers on the shoot. Therefore, in this study, axillary bud development was investigated by treating with plant growth regulators [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and spermidine (SPD)] and an environmental factor (long-day treatment) during ecodormancy and the growth stage to reduce the occurrence of empty branches in ‘Shine Muscat’ grapevine. Treatments with growth regulators and light during ecodormancy did not affect bud size, but flower primordium formation and flower cluster appearance rates were the highest after BAP treatment. Flower primordium formation rate was the most efficient when 200 ppm BAP was applied after endodormancy break. When plants were treated with growth regulators in the growth stage, SPD treatment promoted the growth of shoots and buds but reduced the flower primordium formation rate. In contrast, BAP treatment inhibited bud growth but increased the flower primordium formation rate. In the case of long-day treatment, the formation of the flower primordium was also delayed as in an in vitro experiment. The whole bud necrosis rate was markedly low, and no significant difference was observed after all treatments. The flower primordium formation rates of the first and second buds that are mainly used for the cultivation of ‘Shine Muscat’ were remarkably low. Although BAP treatment promoted the flower primordium formation rate of the first and second buds, it was confirmed that the rate of cluster appearance in the following year was similar to the untreated group. Therefore, we suggest that 200 ppm BAP treatment during ecodormancy is the most efficient approach to reducing the occurrence of empty branches in ‘Shine Muscat’ grapevine.


    ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도는 신초에서 꽃송이가 나오지 않는 빈가지 발생이 빈번하여 생산량이 감소되는 문제점을 가지고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도의 빈가지 발생을 경감시키고자 환경휴면기와 생육기에 식물생장조절제인 6-benzylaminopurine(BAP)과 spermidine(SPD) 및 환경요인인 빛 처리를 통해 액아의 발달을 연구하였다. 환경휴면기의 생장조절제 및 빛 처리는 액아의 크기에는 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 화원기 형성률과 꽃송이 출현률은 BAP 처리에서 가장 높았다. BAP 농도에 따른 화원기 형성률은 내재휴면이 끝난 후 BAP 200ppm을 처리하는 것이 화원기 형성에 가장 유리하였다. 생육기의 생장조절제 처리시, SPD 처리에서 가지의 길이와 액아의 생장이 촉진되는 반면 화원기형성률은 낮았으며, BAP 처리는 반대로 액아의 생장이 억제되는 반면 화원기형성률이 높게 나타났다. 장일처리시 기내 실험과 마찬가지로 화원기 형성이 지연되었다. 모든 처리에서 눈 괴사율은 매우 낮은 수준으로 처리간 통계적 유의성이 인정되지 않았다. ‘샤인머스캣’ 재배시 주로 이용하는 단초전정시 1, 2번 액아의 화원기형성률이 현저하게 낮았으며, BAP 처리가 1, 2번 액아의 화원기 형성을 촉진하나 이듬해 꽃송이출현률은 무처리구와 비슷한 것을 확인하였다. 따라서 ‘샤인머스캣’ 포도의 빈가지 경감을 위해서는 내재휴면이 타파된 후 환경휴면기에 BAP 200ppm을 처리하는 것이 가장 적합하다고 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Germination Conditions of Artemisia dubia Seeds for Factory Cultivation
    Mi-Ja Kim, Ie-Sung Sim, Ae-Yeon Kim, and Kyung-Jin Kang
    This study was conducted to determine the optimal temperature and light conditions for the germination rate, energy, and vigor of Artemisia dubia ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the optimal temperature and light conditions for the germination rate, energy, and vigor of Artemisia dubia to enable the plant’s cultivation in a factory system for year-round growth and harvest. Seeds of A. dubia were obtained at the cultivation site (Hampyeong) over a 3-year period and were stored at either low temperature (3°C) or room temperature, and germination experiments were conducted under controlled growth conditions. Seeds were immersed in 15 mL of distilled water in filter paper-lined Petri dishes, and germination was monitored over the next 8 days. We observed that the percentage germination was highest at 30°C (97.7%), followed by that at 25°C (97.5%) and 20°C (94.5%). Whereas differences in percentage germination at 25°C and 30°C were found to be non-significant, germination at these temperatures was found to be significantly higher than that at 20°C. The germination energy determined 3 days after sowing at 20, 25, and 30°C was 0%, 33.4%, and 93.7%, respectively, thereby further indicating that 30°C is the optimum temperature for A. dubia seed germination. In the low-temperature dormancy breaking experiment, we detected no statistically significant difference between the 3-month seed vernalization and non-treatment groups, thereby indicating that supplemental dormancy breaking treatment is unnecessary. In experiments investigating seed longevity, in which the germination vigor of seeds was determined when stored at room temperature (25-27°C) for 1-3 years, we recorded a germination vigor of 1.4% after storage for 3 years, thus indicating the extremely low viability of these seeds. By contrast, the seeds stored for 2 years and 1 year were characterized by vigor of 88% and 97%, respectively. On the basis of these observations, we performed a germination energy experiment on seeds stored for 1 year at room temperature (25-27°C) or low temperature (3°C). We detected a significant difference in the percentage germination of seeds subjected to room temperature and low-temperature treatments (83.7% and 95.6%, respectively), thereby indicating that germination viability can be enhanced by optimizing the storage conditions. However, we observed no significant difference between the germination of seeds subjected to light and dark treatments, with high germination vigor being observed under both conditions. Thus, illumination does not appear to be an essential factor for the germination of A. dubia seeds. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Shelf Life and Quality of Potted Hydrangea ‘Speedy Red’ under Different Abscisic Acid Spray Concentrations
    Sang Im Oh, Jongyun Kim, and Ae Kyung Lee
    This study compared the shelf life and quality of potted hydrangea (‘Speedy Red’) treated with different abscisic acid (ABA) spray concentrations and ... + READ MORE
    This study compared the shelf life and quality of potted hydrangea (‘Speedy Red’) treated with different abscisic acid (ABA) spray concentrations and investigated the associated physiological changes. Plants were treated with 0 (control), 1,000, 2,000, or 2,500 mg·L-1 ABA, which was applied by spraying. Treatment with 2,000 and 2,500 mg·L-1 ABA extended the hydrangea shelf life by 2 days compared to the control, and the 2,000 mg·L-1 treatment attenuated change in sepal color and wilting compared to other treatments, suggesting quality control in potted plants. Additionally, the 2,000 mg·L-1 ABA spray treatment increased stomatal closure up to day 5 post-treatment, corresponding to the end of the shelf life for treated plants, indicating that ABA spray decreased transpiration-induced water loss. The 2,000 mg·L-1 ABA spray treatment resulted in the highest maximum quantum yield of PSII among the treatments, and the normalized difference vegetation index and the simple ratio index values were also higher than those obtained with other treatments. Thus, 2,000 mg·L-1 ABA spray treatment mitigated water stress by inducing stomatal closure in potted hydrangea (‘Speedy Red’). Overall, the ABA spray treatment controlled stomatal closure and effectively inhibited transpiration, which minimized water loss and preserved plant moisture levels, thereby extending shelf life and quality. Our study also assessed the potential use of nondestructive measurements (e.g., chlorophyll fluorescence and vegetation indices) to monitor the quality of potted hydrangea, which may facilitate the evaluation of potted flower quality on site. ABA spray treatment at 2,000 mg·L-1 effectively extends the shelf life and improves the quality of potted hydrangea (‘Speedy Red’). These results are useful for the postharvest management of potted hydrangeas. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Induction of Polyploidy in Cucumis melo ‘Chammel’ and Evaluation of Morphological and Cytogenetic Changes
    Woo-Young Cho, Deen Mohammad Deepo, Md Mazharul Islam, Si-Chun Nam, Hong-Yul Kim, Jeung-Sul Han, Chang-Kil Kim, Mi-Young Chung, and Ki-Byung Lim
    This study explored the effects of oryzalin on the polyploidization of a new cultivar, Cucumis melo ‘Chammel’. 58 diploid seedlings of ‘Chammel ... + READ MORE
    This study explored the effects of oryzalin on the polyploidization of a new cultivar, Cucumis melo ‘Chammel’. 58 diploid seedlings of ‘Chammel’ were treated with oryzalin. Their ploidy levels were checked by flow cytometry and number of 5S and 18S rDNA loci were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twelve among 58 plants were identified as tetraploids. The tetraploids were self-crossed, and their seeds were harvested. The seeds and seedlings of the tetraploids were compared to the corresponding diploids using morphology and cytogenetic analyses. The seed width, the cotyledon width, and the leaf thickness of the tetraploids increased significantly over those of the diploids. However, the length of the petiole of the tetraploids was shorter than that of the corresponding diploids. The stomata length and width of the guard cells in the tetraploids were longer than in diploids, but the number of stomata per area decreased in the tetraploids. The number of chromosomes was 24 and 48 for the diploids and tetraploids, respectively. Moreover, the chromosomal changes induced by oryzalin were confirmed; the diploids had one pair of 5S rDNA loci and two pairs of 18S rDNA loci, the corresponding numbers were doubled in the tetraploids. These results will help to generate new seedless oriental melon cultivars via polyploidization. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Development of Plastid InDel Markers to Discriminate Lemons from Other Citrus Groups
    Sang Suk Kim, Ho Bang Kim, Kyung Jin Park, Jae Wook Hyun, Cheol Woo Choi, Jae-Ho Joa, Seong Beom Jin, Eun-Sil Kim, and Seung Gab Han
    Lemon (Citrus limon), an interspecific hybrid between sour orange and citron, has been widely used as a rootstock along with trifoliate orange ... + READ MORE
    Lemon (Citrus limon), an interspecific hybrid between sour orange and citron, has been widely used as a rootstock along with trifoliate orange. Though lemons are superior to trifoliate orange in terms of their high seed germination rate throughout the year, one of the obstacles to using lemons as rootstocks is the lack of reliable, lemon-specific molecular markers to discriminate buds of the micro-grafted scion from those of the lemon rootstock. In order to obtain lemon-specific molecular markers, we compared the whole-plastid genomes available from four citrus species (lemon, pummelo, sweet orange, and mandarin) and developed seven plastid insertion/deletion (InDel) markers. The plastid InDel markers were applied to 46 citrus accessions that included lemons (17 accessions), grapefruit, mandarin, pummelo, sour orange, orange, papeda, tangor, and tangelo groups. The resulting dendrogram revealed that the citrus accessions used in this analysis could be distinctly classified into seven clusters. Lemons formed a separate cluster and had identical allele sizes for each InDel locus among all accessions investigated. This set of InDel markers could be a useful molecular tool for the rapid and clear discrimination of micro-grafted scions and lemon rootstocks during the production of virus-free citrus trees. The plastid InDel markers with maternal inheritance features can also be used to analyze the phylogenetic origin of various citrus cultivars including lemons. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Genes Regulating the ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS)-Mediated Male Sterility Networks in Melon (Cucumis melo L.)
    Ling Wang, Dong-yang Dai, Xia Wu, Yun-yan Sheng, Peng Ji, Dan-dan Li, Fan Zhang, and Di Wang
    The male sterile plants have higher heterosis in the production of hybrid seeds. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) gene has been demonstrated to ... + READ MORE
    The male sterile plants have higher heterosis in the production of hybrid seeds. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) gene has been demonstrated to be a candidate gene for ms-5. However, the genetic mechanism underlying AMS-mediated male sterility (MS) regulatory networks in melon (Cucumis melo L.) is still not clearly understood. In the present study, we used transcriptome sequencing analysis, yeast hybridization technology, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and bioinformatics analyzed to systematically investigate the AMS-mediated MS regulatory networks in melon. A set of 15 proteins interacting with AMS, including the C. melo L. Zinc Ribbon protein 1 (CmZR1) gene, was identified using the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) system and further confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay. The interaction of the CmZR1 protein with the C. melo L. Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor 1 (CmPMEI1) protein was identified and further verified by the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down technique. Bioinformatics analyzed the physical and chemical properties, gene structure, and kinship of the melon PMEI family. We proposed a partial regulatory network for melon MS in which the interaction of CmPMEI1 protein with CmZR1 protein regulates the expression of the AMS gene for pollen abortion. These findings provide important information for increasing the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the MS regulatory network in melon. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Variability of Chrysanthemum Cultivars Induced by Gamma Irradiation
    Saika Anne and Jin Hee Lim
    This study aimed to determine the exposure dose of gamma radiation on stem cuttings of chrysanthemum cultivars. Explants of 11 cultivars (‘Eldora ... + READ MORE
    This study aimed to determine the exposure dose of gamma radiation on stem cuttings of chrysanthemum cultivars. Explants of 11 cultivars (‘Eldora’, ‘Rania’, ‘Aileen’, ‘Olga pink’, ‘Sevda’, ‘Heimish’, ‘Rania’, ‘Attirance’, ‘White Plume’, ‘Coral King’, and ‘Leporem’) were subjected to different levels of gamma irradiation (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 100, and 150 Gy). The results revealed that variation in vegetative growth parameters, viz., plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, total number of flowers, flower diameter, number of petals, petal length and width, and number of buds occurred in the M1V1 generation compared to the control (0 Gy). The survival rates of the gamma-irradiated cultivars changed dramatically. The number of surviving plantlets based on 50% lethal dose (LD50) was found in 100 and 150 Gy treated plants 60 days after radiation. In addition, the highest percentage of plant survival was observed in the control, while the lowest percentage was observed in plants irradiated with 100 Gy and 150 Gy, along with delayed bud initiation and flowering. The number of days from planting to flowering was low in all of the control cultivars, even though the flowering percentage was high in the control compared to the treatments. The highest number of branches was observed in plants that were subjected to 100 and 150 Gy treatment, while 10, 30, and 50 Gy gamma irradiation revealed similar vegetative characteristics to all the control cultivars. Maximum leaf abnormality and leaf color variation were observed in the 70, 100, and 150 Gy treatments. Mutant varieties were produced from those treated with 10, 30, 50, 70, and 150 Gy, in which a higher number of mutants and mutation frequency were found in the 30 and 70 Gy treatments. The results showed that more flower color mutations occurred due to higher exposure to irradiation with minimum alteration in the vegetative growth in all cultivars. These results establish a standard to identify the gamma radiation dose that can induce mutations in chrysanthemum. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Identification of a Candidate Locus and Development of a Molecular Marker for Male Sterility in Watermelon
    Yoon Jeong Jang, Tae-Yong Sim, Jisu Ryu, Sun-Ju Rhee, Yongjae Kim, and Gung Pyo Lee
    Genic male sterility (GMS) is an important trait for watermelon breeding programs to produce F1 hybrids without the laborious steps of ... + READ MORE
    Genic male sterility (GMS) is an important trait for watermelon breeding programs to produce F1 hybrids without the laborious steps of emasculation and hand pollination; however, the inheritance of GMS and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the causal genomic region for GMS in watermelon and develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to the trait. Two inbred lines harboring a male sterility gene were crossed to generate F2 and near-isogenic line (NIL) populations for mapping loci and evaluating SNP markers. Our study showed that the inheritance of GMS was controlled by a single recessive gene following Mendelian inheritance models in the segregation population. We applied bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Illumina whole-genome resequencing (BSA-seq) to identify a candidate causal genomic region for GMS at 8.9–13.0 Mb on chromosome (Chr.) 6. Next, we selected seven high-resolution melting (HRM) markers by retrieving 1-Mb genomic sequences around SNPs located within the causal genomic region. The identified polymorphic SNPs were tested via HRM analysis in the F2 population. By further narrowing the putative causal region, we identified a deleted and frameshifted gene, Cla97C06G117840, at Chr. 6. As a result, we developed allele-specific PCR and HRM markers, which completely cosegregated with the male-sterility phenotype of the F2 and NIL populations. Overall, our results will help effectively use GMS in watermelon breeding programs and accelerate the production process of F1 hybrids. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Fingerprint Construction and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Tree Peony Collected from Hunan Province Based on SSR Markers
    Zhengmin Yang, Yang Shi, Jiaqi Shuai, Yanlin Li, Tianjiao Sun, Mengjie Chen, and Changping Lv
    To protect and identify the varieties of tree peony, DNA fingerprints were constructed and genetic diversity was analyzed with simple sequence repeat ... + READ MORE
    To protect and identify the varieties of tree peony, DNA fingerprints were constructed and genetic diversity was analyzed with simple sequence repeat markers with tailed primer M13 (TP-M13-SSR) technology in 18 local tree peony varieties in Hunan Province of China. Twenty-four out of 131 pairs of polymorphic primers showing stable amplification and good capillary electrophoresis peaks were selected. The Shannon information indexes (I), polymorphism information contents (PICs), and differentiation rates of eight primer pairs were higher than average. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms indicated that the genetic similarity coefficients of the 18 Hunan tree peony varieties ranged from 0.57 to 0.86, and Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Ning Xiang Hong’ (0.57) was classified as a separate group. The 18 varieties could be completely distinguished with two pairs of primers. The variety names, flower types, fingerprinting codes, and other information were included in the quick response (QR) code, which provides a basis for the molecular identification of Hunan tree peony varieties. The construction of DNA fingerprinting of tree peony varieties in Hunan is important for its protection. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021