• Research Article

    The Sucrose-to-Hexose Ratio is a Significant Determinant for Fruit Maturity and is Modulated by Invertase and Sucrose Re-Synthesis During Fruit Development and Ripening in Asian Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Cultivars
    Bok-Rye Lee, Jeong-Hwa Cho, Seung Gon Wi, Ung Yang, Woo-Jin Jung, and Sang-Hyun Lee
    This study investigated the regulatory mechanism controlling fruit maturity, focusing on sugar metabolism during pear fruit development and ripening. Three Asian pear ... + READ MORE
    This study investigated the regulatory mechanism controlling fruit maturity, focusing on sugar metabolism during pear fruit development and ripening. Three Asian pear cultivars, ‘Wonhwang’ (early-maturity), ‘Whangkeumbae’ (early-maturity), and ‘Niitaka’ (late-maturity), were selected. Absolute growth rate was the highest at 117 days after full bloom (DAFB) in early-maturing cultivars, ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whangkeumbae’, and at 147 DAFB in the late-maturing cultivar, ‘Niitaka’. Hexose (glucose and fructose) content was relatively higher in ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whangkeumbae’ than in ‘Niitaka’ during the early stage of fruit development, concomitant with an increase in the activities of cell wall invertase (CWINV), vacuolar invertase (VINV), and neutral invertase (NINV). During the late stage of fruit development, sucrose content and the sucrose-to-hexose ratio were relatively higher in ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whangkeumbae’ than in ‘Niitaka’, accompanied by an increase of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity involved in sucrose re-synthesis. Principal component analysis (PCA) distinctly separated the fruit development into two parts, showing a shift in the early to late stage of fruit development, consistent with the point when the sucrose-to-hexose ratio began to increase. During the late stage of fruit development and ripening, the sucrose-to-hexose ratio was positively correlated with fresh weight, CWINV, and SPS activities and negatively correlated with starch or NINV and VINV activities. These results indicate that the sucrose-to-hexose ratio is an important factor in regulating fruit maturity and is modulated by invertases and SPS activities. - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Characteristics of Carbohydrate Assimilation and Distribution in Walnut (Juglans regia L.)
    Shi-Wei Wang, Cun-De Pan, Cui-Fang Zhang, and Hong Chen
    Based on 13C isotope tracer technology, we investigated the 13C abundance (δ13C), 13C content (13Camount ... + READ MORE
    Based on 13C isotope tracer technology, we investigated the 13C abundance (δ13C), 13C content (13Camount), and new fixed 13C percentage (13CPCT) in different organs and different metabolic components in girdled fruit-bearing shoots at different stages of fruit growth and development in walnut. Our aim was to analyze the dynamic characteristics of carbohydrate assimilation, transportation, and utilization in different stages of walnut fruit growth and development. The results showed that (1) at 0 h after the feeding, δ13C, 13Camount, and 13CPCT in sucrose from the leaves were the highest and positively correlated with net photosynthetic rate of leaves (p < 0.05); (2) at 24 h after the feeding, δ13C, 13Camount, and 13CPCT in sucrose from the carpopodium reached their peak values; (3) δ13C, 13Camount, and 13CPCT in sucrose from the peel were lower than those of hexose at 48 h after feeding in the fast-growing stage, but they all reached maximum levels in peel sucrose at 48 h after feeding in the oil conversion stage; and (4) the highest δ13C, 13Camount, and 13CPCT were recorded in all carbohydrates from the seed kernel 48 h after feeding, among which the highest δ13C, 13Camount, and 13CPCT were recorded in sucrose. These results suggested that sucrose was the main form of carbohydrate assimilation and transportation in walnut fruit, and large amounts of sucrose are accumulated in the peel and in the kernel, where it is also the base for the transformation of oil. - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Resistance Evaluation of G, CG, or M Series Apple Rootstocks to Soil-borne Diseases (Phytophthora Root Rot, White Root Rot, and Southern Blight) and Woolly Apple Aphid
    Byeong-Ho Choi, Chung-Sil Kim, Young-Ju Jeong, In-Hee Park, Su-Gon Han, and Tae-Myung Yoon
    In this study, the resistance of the industry-standard M26 and M9 rootstocks and the promising elite G or CG rootstocks was evaluated ... + READ MORE
    In this study, the resistance of the industry-standard M26 and M9 rootstocks and the promising elite G or CG rootstocks was evaluated not only for soil-borne diseases, such as Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora cactorum), white root rot (Rosellinia necatrix), and southern blight (Athelia rolfsii), but also for woolly apple aphid [Eriosoma lanigerum (Huasm.)]. On February 27, 2019, each unworked rootstock plant was harvested from stool-beds, then planted in 2-L pots and grown in a greenhouse. For P. cactorum, M9 was the most resistant, and CG5087 and G935 were not. There was little difference in susceptibility to R. necatrix among rootstocks, but G or CG rootstocks were generally less susceptible than the M series. The susceptibility to A. rolfsii was higher (p < 0.05) in M series rootstocks than in G or CG series rootstocks, and the mortality reached 80% and 53% for M9 and M26, respectively, and 7% for G935. As a result, M9 and G11 showed resistance to P. cactorum, whereas G or CG rootstocks showed relative resistance to R. necatrix and A. rolfsii. For woolly apple aphid, G11, G202, G214, and CG5087 were immune, but G935, CG4814, M26, and M9 were not. - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Bearing Habits of Acer truncatum and the Relationship Between Its Branch Characteristics and Fruiting Performance
    Chao Li, Xiaoling Liu, Yi Feng, Tian Bao, Changqi Ye, Dailong Li, and Shuchai Su
    In recent years, seeds of the Shantung maple have attracted attention for their economic and medicinal value due to the high nervonic ... + READ MORE
    In recent years, seeds of the Shantung maple have attracted attention for their economic and medicinal value due to the high nervonic acid content in their seed oil, which has a curative effect on some demyelinating diseases. However, few studies have investigated its fruiting habits and branch characteristics; therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the fruit bearing habits of A. truncatum and analyze the relationship between its branch characteristics and fruiting performance to provide a basis for management. The branch structure, flower-bearing position, and continuous fruiting ability of 200 A. truncatum individuals were recorded from 2014–2017. The results showed that parent and bearing shoots of A. truncatum were usually short (less than 10 cm) with fruit developed by terminal mixed buds of the parent shoot. A. truncatum can form a Y-shaped branch group with continuous fruiting ability for many years via a lateral shoot of the bearing shoot. The position and slenderness of the parent shoot had a significant influence on the yield of the bearing shoot and seed weight, length, and thickness. The top and basal diameters of the parent shoot had a significant influence on the yield of the bearing shoot. Group comparison results showed that the most effective and convenient method for the selection of parent shoots with high fruiting performance was based on the position and top diameter of the parent shoots, among which the parent shoots with a top diameter thicker than 3.08 mm developed by a lateral bud in a vegetative branch had greater yield, number of fruit, and seed weight. - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparative Analysis of the Proteome in the Peel and Flesh of ‘Hongro’ Apples

    ‘홍로’ 사과 과피 및 과육의 단백질체 비교 분석

    Jung-Sung Chung, Sung Hwan Choi, Jae Ho Kim, Soo Yong Shim, Moch R. Adnan, Eun-Sil Chang, Young-Geol Sohn, Yun-Hee Kim, Jin Gook Kim, and Jeung Joo Lee

    정정성, 최성환, 김재호, 심수용, 모크아드난, 장은실, 손영걸, 김윤희, 김진국, 이증주

    The proteome expressed in the peel and flesh of ‘Hongro’, a domestic breeding apple cultivar, was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis ...

    국내 육종 사과 품종인 ‘홍로’의 과피와 과육에서 발현되는 단백질체를 추출하여 이차원 전기영동으로 분리하였다. 그 결과 대부분의 단백질들은 과피와 과육에서 유사한 정도로 ...

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    The proteome expressed in the peel and flesh of ‘Hongro’, a domestic breeding apple cultivar, was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Most of the proteins were expressed at similar levels in the peel and flesh, but 30 protein spots showed a difference of more than two times higher in expression level in the peel and flesh. Of these, 25 were higher in the peel and 5 were higher in the flesh. By analyzing these proteins with MALDI-TOF/TOF, 18 of the protein spots that were higher in the peel were identified as proteins with their respective functions, and the remaining 7 were identified as having unknown function or were unidentified. In the case of the protein spots expressed higher in the flesh, two were identified as proteins having respective functions, and the other three were unidentified. Proteins more highly expressed in the peel were 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate oxidase homolog (spot 21) related to the biosynthesis of ethylene; acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (spot 148), cytosolic 1, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic 1-like (spot 316) and 8-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase-like (spot 348) related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites; oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, chloroplastic (spot 210), and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (spot 273) related to the photosynthesis; (+)-neomenthol dehydrogenase-like (spot 216 and 219), formate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (spot 305), glutathione S-transferase-like (spot 483 and 484), and acidic endochitinase SE 2-like, partial (spot 391 and 392) related to the biological defense and stress response; and antioxidant enzyme L-ascorbate peroxidase 2 (spot 221), MLP-like protein 34 (spot 406), major allergen Mal d 1 (spot 451 and 452), and major allergen Mal d 1.06A01 (spot 457) related to allergies. On the other hand, proteins that were more highly expressed in the flesh were chaperonin 60 subunit alpha 1, chloroplastic (spot 8) related to protein folding, and NADP-dependent D-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (spot 380) related to carbohydrate metabolism. These results will be useful in a wide range of studies related to apple breeding, storage, quality, and environmental tolerance.


    국내 육종 사과 품종인 ‘홍로’의 과피와 과육에서 발현되는 단백질체를 추출하여 이차원 전기영동으로 분리하였다. 그 결과 대부분의 단백질들은 과피와 과육에서 유사한 정도로 발현되었으나, 30개의 단백질 spot들은 과피 또는 과육에서의 발현 정도가 2배 이상 차이가 났다. 이들 중 25개는 과피에서, 5개는 과육에서 더 높게 발현되었다. 이들 단백질들을 MALDI-TOF/TOF로 분석한 결과, 과피에서 더 높게 발현된 단백질 spot들 중 18개는 각각의 기능을 갖는 단백질로 동정 되었고, 나머지 7개는 기능이 밝혀지지 않은 것으로 동정되었거나 미동정 되었다. 과육에서 더 높게 발현된 단백질 spot들의 경우 2개는 각각의 기능을 갖는 단백질로 동정 되었고, 나머지 3개는 미동정 되었다. 과피에서 더 높게 발현된 단백질은 에틸렌의 생합성과 관련된 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog(spot 21번), 이차대사산물의 생합성과 관련된 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic 1(spot 148), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic 1-like(spot 316) 및 8-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase-like (spot 348), 광합성과 관련된 oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, chloroplastic(spot 210) 및 ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit(spot 273), 생체방어 및 스트레스 반응과 관련된 (+)-neomenthol dehydrogenase-like (spot 216 및 219), formate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial(spot 305), glutathione S-transferase-like(spot 483 및 484) 및 acidic endochitinase SE 2-like, partial(spot 391 및 392), 항산화효소인 L-ascorbate peroxidase 2(spot 221), 알레르기 관련 단백질인 MLP-like protein 34(spot 406), major allergen Mal d 1(spot 451 및 452) 및 major allergen Mal d 1.06A01(spot 457)이었다. 한편 과육에서 더 높게 발현된 단백질은 protein folding과 관련된 chaperonin 60 subunit alpha 1, chloroplastic (spot 8) 및 탄수화물 대사와 관련된 NADP-dependent D-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(spot 380)이었다. 이상의 연구 결과들은 사과의 육종, 저장, 품질, 환경에 대한 내성 등과 관련된 광범위한 연구에 유용하게 이용될 수 있을 것으로 사료되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Growth and Flowering by Relighting and Daminozide Treatment in the Flower Bud Formation Stage of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Baekma’ Cut Flowers

    절화 국화 ‘백마’의 화아형성기 재전조 및 daminozide 처리에 따른 생장과 개화

    Yong Seung Roh and Yong Kweon Yoo

    노용승, 유용권

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of relighting and daminozide treatment on growth and flowering characteristics, length of cut flowers ...

    본 연구는 절화 국화 ‘백마’의 화아형성기에 재전조와 daminozide 처리에 따른 절화장, 상위엽 크기, 꽃목 길이 등 절화의 생장과 개화특성에 미치는 영향을 ...

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    This study was conducted to examine the effects of relighting and daminozide treatment on growth and flowering characteristics, length of cut flowers, upper leaf size, and peduncle length in the flower bud formation stage of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Baekma’. Relighting for 4-8 hr at 10 days after transition to short-day conditions increased the length of cut flowers, number of leaves, flower diameter, and fresh weight of flowers compared to the control. The upper leaf area was biggest after relighting for 8 hr than in the other treatments. However, relighting for 4-8 hr was not effective for increasing the number of ray florets and delayed flowering by 6-8 days. The two daminozide treatments at 18 (stage I) and 28 (stage II) days after transition to short-day conditions shortened the length of cut flowers, but number of leaves and fresh weight of cut flowers increased in all other daminozide treatments. The peduncle length was longest in the control and was 2.6-3.2 cm in one treatment with 800 mg·L-1 daminozide and two treatments with 400 and 800 mg·L-1 daminozide regardless of stage. The upper leaf area was the smallest in control and biggest in one treatment with 800 mg·L-1 daminozide at stage I and two treatments with 400 mg·L-1 at stage I and 800 mg·L-1 daminozide at stage II. The flower diameter and fresh weight were greater in daminozide treatments than in the control. The number of ray florets increased by 9-11% in one treatment with 800 mg·L-1 at stage I or 400 mg·L-1 daminozide at stage II but decreased in two treatments of daminozide. The days to flowering were delayed by 2-6 days in daminozide treatments than in control. Therefore, it is suggested that relighting for 8 hr at 10 days and treatment of 800 mg·L-1 daminozide at 18 days after transition to short-day conditions are effective in improving the quality of cut flowers by shortening the peduncle length and increasing the growth of the upper leaf area, the length of cut flowers, and the flower diameter.


    본 연구는 절화 국화 ‘백마’의 화아형성기에 재전조와 daminozide 처리에 따른 절화장, 상위엽 크기, 꽃목 길이 등 절화의 생장과 개화특성에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 수행하였다. 단일 조건으로 전환한 후 화아형성기인 10일째에 4–8시간 재전조는 절화장, 엽수, 화폭, 꽃 생체중 등을 증가시켰다. 상위 엽면적은 8시간 재전조 처리에서 가장 넓었다. 그러나 4–8시간 재전조 처리는 설상화 수의 증가에 효과가 없었으며, 개화를 6–8일 지연시켰다. 단일 조건으로 전환한 후 18일(stage I)과 28일(stage II)에 daminozide 2회 처리는 무처리구보다 절화장이 짧았으며, 엽수와 절화의 생체중은 daminozide 처리구에서 무처리구보다 증가하였다. 꽃목 길이는 무처리구에서 5.8cm로 가장 길었고, stage에 관계없이 800mg·L-1 daminozide의 1회 처리 및 400와 800mg·L-1 2회 처리에서 2.6–3.2cm로 짧았다. 상위 엽면적은 무처리구에서 가장 작았으며, stage I에서 800mg·L-1와 stage I 400mg·L-1 + stage II 800mg·L-1 2회 처리에서 가장 넓었다. 화폭과 꽃의 생체중은 daminozide 처리가 무처리보다 더 컸으며, 설상화수는 stage I에서 800mg·L-1와 stage II에서 400mg·L-1 처리에서 무처리보다 9–11% 더 증가하였고, 2회 처리에서는 설상화수가 감소하는 경향을 보여주었다. 개화일은 무처리보다 daminozide 처리구에서 2–6일 지연되었다. 따라서 절화 국화 ‘백마’ 재배시 단일조건으로 전환하여 10일 후부터 8시간 재전조와 18일 후에 daminozide 800mg·L-1 처리는 꽃목 길이를 단축시키고, 절화장, 화폭, 상위엽을 크게하여 절화의 품질을 향상시키는데 효과적일 것으로 판단되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Fruit Development Characteristics and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzyme Activity in Different Kiwifruit Cultivars

    참다래 품종에 따른 과실의 생육 특성과 자당 대사 효소 활성의 비교

    Hyeong Ho Kang, Eun Ui Oh, Kyeong Uk Lee, Yong-Bum Kwack, Mock Hee Lee, and Kwan Jeong Song

    강형호, 오은의, 이경욱, 곽용범, 이목희, 송관정

    The study was conducted to examine the relationship between fruit development and sucrose metabolizing enzyme activities in the fruit of some kiwifruit ...

    본 연구는 제주지역에서 재배되고 있는 참다래 품종의 과실 생육과 자당 대사에 관여하는 효소 활성과의 관계를 살펴보고자 수행되었다. 골드키위 계통의 ‘한라골드’, ‘스위트골드’ 및 ...

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    The study was conducted to examine the relationship between fruit development and sucrose metabolizing enzyme activities in the fruit of some kiwifruit cultivars grown in Jeju, Korea. The fruit characteristics and sucrose metabolizing enzyme activities were evaluated during fruit development in yellow-fleshed cv. ‘Halla Gold’, ‘Sweet Gold’ and ‘Goldone’ and green-fleshed cv. ‘Garmrok’. Fruits were enlarged rapidly at the early stage of fruit development and dry matter showed a gradual increase by harvesting time. Starch content continued to increase by about 140 DAA, was maintained by 170 DAA, and thereafter decreased drastically. The level of soluble sugar was low by 120 DAA and then increased rapidly by harvesting time. The sucrose degradation activities of sucrose synthase (SS) and acid invertase decreased gradually by 120-140 DAA with a small difference depending on cultivars, but those of neutral invertase remained constantly low during fruit development. The sucrose synthesizing activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and SS maintained low levels of 140 and 100 DAA, respectively and then increased gradually. The results indicate that 100-120 DAA is a turning point in a changing pattern of fruit weight and soluble sugar content that combined with a change in sucrose metabolizing enzyme activities.


    본 연구는 제주지역에서 재배되고 있는 참다래 품종의 과실 생육과 자당 대사에 관여하는 효소 활성과의 관계를 살펴보고자 수행되었다. 골드키위 계통의 ‘한라골드’, ‘스위트골드’ 및 ‘골드원’과 그린키위 계통의 ‘감록’ 품종을 이용하여 수행하였다. 과실 비대는 생육기 초반에 급격히 증가하고, 건물율은 수확기까지 지속적으로 증가하였다. 전분의 함량은 만개 후 140일까지 계속 증가하여 170일까지 높게 유지되었으며, 이후 급격히 감소하였다. 가용성 당은 만개 후 120일까지 낮은 수준을 보였으나, 이후 수확기까지 급격하게 증가하였다. 자당 분해의 sucrose synthase(SS)와 acid invertase의 활성은 품종에 따라 약간의 차이는 있으나 만개 후 120–140일까지 점진적으로 감소하였으며, neutral invertase의 활성은 과실 발육 기간 동안 거의 일정하게 낮은 수준을 유지하였다. Sucrose phosphate synthase와 SS의 자당 합성의 활성은 각각 만개 후 140일 및 120일까지 낮은 수준에 머물렀으나 이후 점차 증가하였다. 본 연구 결과 만개 후 100–120일이 자당 대사 효소 활성의 변화와 더불어 과중 및 가용성 당 함량의 증가 양상이 변화하는 전환점이 됨을 확인할 수 있었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Growth and Morphology of Ginseng Seedlings Cultivated in an Ebb-and-Flow Subirrigation System as Affected by Cell Dimension
    Byungkwan Lee, Minh Duy Pham, Hyunseung Hwang, Inbae Jang, and Changhoo Chun
    To design a novel plug tray for ginseng seedling production, the effects of cell height and diameter, which determine root-zone volume, on ... + READ MORE
    To design a novel plug tray for ginseng seedling production, the effects of cell height and diameter, which determine root-zone volume, on growth and morphology of ginseng seedlings were investigated. Stratified seeds of the cultivar ‘Chunpoong’ were sown into containers with different cell heights (150, 200, 250, and 300 mm) with a diameter of 50 mm, denoted as H150, H200, H250, and H300, and different cell diameters (15, 20, 30, 50, and 75 mm) with a height of 200 mm, denoted as D15, D20, D30, D50, and D75, and filled with commercial growing media. Seedlings were then grown for 20 weeks in an ebb-and-flow subirrigation system installed in a plant factory with artificial light. Fresh and dry weights, length of roots, and leaf area increased as the cell height increased up to 300 mm. Length, fresh and dry weights of both shoots and roots, root diameter, and leaf area all increased as the cell diameter increased up to 30 mm. The root diameter was not significantly different between D30 and D75, though the roots had more space to expand. A further increase in cell height and diameter beyond H200 or D30 was not effective at increasing plant growth. The roots of ginseng seedlings were long and thick in the cells with a height of 200 mm and diameter of 30 mm. As a result, a novel plug tray was developed with a height and diameter of 200 mm and 30 mm, respectively, resulting in a root volume of 141.37 mL and planting density of 1,156 seedlings/m2 (9 cm2/plants). - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Soil Irrigation Starting Point Using Tensiometer on Growth and Water Use of Cucumber in Greenhouse

    관수 개시점 처리가 시설 재배 오이 생육과 물 이용에 미치는 영향

    Jin-Hee An, Sang-Ho Jeon, Mun-Haeng Lee, Dong-Cheol Jang, Eun-Young Choi, Jong-Kuk Na, and Ki-Young Choi

    안진희, 전상호, 이문행, 장동철, 최은영, 나종국, 최기영

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the soil irrigation starting point on the growth and water use efficiency of ...

    본 실험은 시설 토양에서 생육 단계별로 관수 개시점을 달리하여 오이의 생육과 수분이용효율에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 실험은 강원도 춘천시 남산면 소재 플라스틱 ...

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    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the soil irrigation starting point on the growth and water use efficiency of cucumber at each growth stage in a greenhouse. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) ‘Chungchun’ grafting seedlings were transplanted on April 20, 2020 and cultivated until July 5, 2020 in a polyethylene greenhouse in Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do. Soil irrigation starting point using a tensiometer were treated in 10-10-10 (T1), 10-10-20 (T2), 20-10-10 (T3), 20-10-20 (T4), and a control. The total amounts of irrigation, growth, yield and water use efficiency were measured. The average daily soil water tension (kPa) was 8.3 for T1, 9.2 for T2, 10.7 for T3, 10.2 for T4, and 5.9 for the control. The total amount of irrigation supplied was from 53,322 mL (T1) to 59,206 mL (T4), there was no difference between treatments. The average daily irrigation amount per plant was 773 mL (T1), 787 mL (T2), 780 mL (T3), and 858 mL (T4). The total number and intervals of the irrigations were not different from 86 times (T3) to 99 times (T1) and 0.7days. In the control, the daily average amount of irrigation was 1,525 mL, and the total number of irrigations was 50. In the control, the average amount of irrigation was twice that of the treatments (T1, T2, T3, and T4), and the number of irrigations was reduced by more than 40%. On the 43rd day of treatment, plant height, number of nodes, leaf width, and number of leaves were highest in the control, and the lowest plant height was in T3 and T4 treatments. There was no significant difference in chlorophyll content (SPAD value). Marketable number of fruit and yields was highest in the T2 treatment, and showed differences according to harvest time. The water use efficiency (g·L-1) of cucumbers produced in 1L irrigation was T2 (45.1g) > T1 (33.5g), T3 (31.9g) > T4 (28.9g) > control (23.7g). These results indicate 10 (growing period)- 10 (harvesting period)- 20kPa (late harvesting period) as a suitable starting point of soil irrigation tension for cucumbers in spring cultivation.


    본 실험은 시설 토양에서 생육 단계별로 관수 개시점을 달리하여 오이의 생육과 수분이용효율에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 실험은 강원도 춘천시 남산면 소재 플라스틱 연동 온실에서 2020년 4월 20일 오이(Cucumis sativus L.) 다다기 계통 ‘청춘’접목묘(대목: ‘하나짱토좌’)를 정식하여 7월 5일까지 재배하였다. 텐시오미터를 이용하여 토양 관수 개시점을 생육기-수확성기-수확후기 3단계로 나누어 처리 1은 10-10-10kPa(T1), 처리 2는 10-10-20kPa(T2), 처리 3은 20-10- 10kPa(T3), 처리 4는 20-10-20kPa(T4) 및 관행 대조구 Control의 총 5 처리하였다. 총 관수량, 생육, 수량 및 수분이용효율을 측정하였다. 일평균 토양 수분장력이 T1은 8.3kPa, T2는 9.2kPa, T3는 10.7kPa, T4는 10.2kPa였으며, Control은 5.9kPa이였다. 공급된 주당 총 관수량은 53,322mL(T1)–59,206mL(T4)으로 처리 간 차이가 없었다. 일평균 관수량은 T1은 773mL, T2는 787mL, T3는 780mL, T4는 858mL였으며, 총 관수 횟수는 99회(T1), 92회(T2), 86회(T3), 93회(T4)였으며, 관수 간격도 0.7일로 차이가 없었다. 그러나 Control 처리는 일평균 관수량 1,525mL, 총 관수 횟수 50회로 평균 관수량이 처리구에 비해 2배 이상 많았고, 관수 횟수는 40% 이상 감소하였다. 처리 43일째 오이 초장, 마디수, 엽폭, 엽수는 Control 처리에서 가장 높았으며, T3, T4 처리는 초장이 가장 낮았고, 엽록소 함량(SPAD 값)은 유의한 차이가 없었다. 상품 과수와 수량은 T2 처리에서 가장 높았으며, 수확 시기에 따라 처리에 따라 차이를 보였다. 1L 관수량에 생산된 오이의 수분이용효율(g·L-1)은 T2(45.1g) > T1(33.5g), T3(31.9g) > T4(28.9g) > Control(23.7g)으로 높았다. 이상의 결과 4월 정식 5월 수확하는 봄 재배 작형에서 오이의 관수 개시점은 10(생육기) -10(수확성기)- 20(수확후기)kPa가 적합하였다.

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    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Water Consumption and Plant Growth Characteristics in Different European Cucumber Varieties in Substrate Hydroponics

    배지경에서 고온다습 조건에 따른 유럽형 오이 품종별 수분소비량 및 식물 생육 특성 비교

    Seo-A Yoon, Jeong Man Kim, Eun Young Choi, Ki Young Choi, Kyung Lee Choi, Ki-Jeong Nam, Seok Kwi Oh, Jong Hyang Bae, and Yong Beom Lee

    윤서아, 김정만, 최은영, 최기영, 최경이, 남기정, 오석귀, 배종향, 이용범

    This study aimed to select cucumber varieties adaptive to the UAE greenhouse climate by comparing LAVPD, water consumption, and growth performance of ...

    본 연구는 UAE 온실 환경에서 적응성이 우수한 오이 품종을 선발하고자 유럽형 오이 Gulfstream, Imea, Borja, Dreamliner을 고온다습한 국내 온실 환경에서 배지경으로 재배하면서 ...

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    This study aimed to select cucumber varieties adaptive to the UAE greenhouse climate by comparing LAVPD, water consumption, and growth performance of plants and fruits of different European cucumber varieties, including Gulfstream, Imea, Borja, and Dreamliner, in substrate hydroponic cultivation under hot and humid greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the total marketable fruit weight per plant was the highest in the Gulfstream variety during the extremely high temperature period, August, followed by Imea. During the entire growing period, the total marketable fruit weight was the highest in Imea, which was associated with the highest number of stem nodes. Water consumption for producing 200 g of fruit was lower in Gulfstream and Imea varieties. Thus, Gulfstream and Imea varieties could be recommended for production in the UAE greenhouse condition.


    본 연구는 UAE 온실 환경에서 적응성이 우수한 오이 품종을 선발하고자 유럽형 오이 Gulfstream, Imea, Borja, Dreamliner을 고온다습한 국내 온실 환경에서 배지경으로 재배하면서 엽포차, 수분소비량, 식물체 및 과실 생육 특성을 비교하였다. 총 생산된 상품과중은 극고온기에는 Gulfstream 품종이 다른 품종에 비해 높았고 Imea 품종이 뒤를 이었으며 전 재배기간 동안 총상품과중은 마디수가 가장 많았던 Imea 품종에서 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 과실 200g을 생산하기 위해 소모된 물량도 Gulfstream과 Imea 순으로 적었다. 따라서, UAE 온실 환경에 Gulfstream과 Imea 두 품종이 적합할 것으로 판단된다.

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    April 2021
  • Research Article

    The Prolonging Effect of Natural Plant Extracts on the Storage Period of Postharvest Litchi
    Ling Li, Xuyu Yan, and Juan Li
    This work was conducted to determine the preservation effects of essential oil to prolong the postharvest storage and freshness period of ‘Feizixiao ... + READ MORE
    This work was conducted to determine the preservation effects of essential oil to prolong the postharvest storage and freshness period of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi fruit. Essential oil was extracted from Lysimachi foenum-graecum Hance, Ginkgo biloba extract was obtained from the leaves, and anthocyanin was obtained from eggplant peel. Aspects of quality such as appearance, nutritional value, and enzyme activity were studied in postharvest litchi fruits. The results showed that the weight loss, decay rate, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of litchi gradually increased in the four treatments and controls, while chroma L* and Vc, soluble solids, and titratable acid contents decreased with the extension of the storage time, while the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) increased at first and then decreased slowly. Compared with room temperature preservation, the treatments with 0.5% essential oil extract, 0.5% ginkgo biloba extract, 0.5% anthocyanin extract, and 0.05% potassium sorbate reduced PPO and POD activity, membrane lipid peroxidation, decay, and weight loss, while providing better color protection and higher Vc, soluble solids, and titratable acid contents. The extracts delayed fruit browning, protected the nutrients and flavour quality of litchi pulp to a certain extent, and extended shelf life of postharvest litchi. Above all, the effect of 0.5% essential oil extract on the postharvest preservation of litchi was significantly better than other treatments. In addition, that of 0.5% ginkgo biloba extract was similar to that of 0.05% potassium sorbate but better than that of 0.5% anthocyanin extract. These results indicated that essential oil from Lysimachi foenum-graecum Hance prevented the decline of postharvest litchi quality, delayed browning and aging, and had the potential to be further developed as a natural fruit and vegetable preservative. - COLLAPSE
    April 2021
  • Research Article

    Structural Change in Peach Production and Dynamic Relationship between Its Production and Area using Time Series Analysis

    복숭아 생산량의 구조적 변화와 재배면적과의 동태적 관계

    Woo Seok Kim, Jae Hoon Jeong, Suhyun Ryu, Seul Ki Lee, Jeom Hwa Han, and Jung Gun Cho

    김우석, 정재훈, 류수현, 이슬기, 한점화, 조정건

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether climate change has had a nation-wide impact on peach production based on long-term ...

    본 연구는 1980년부터 2019년까지의 장기 시계열자료를 기반으로 기후변화가 우리나라 복숭아 생산량에 전국적인 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고, 재배면적과의 동태적 관계를 명확히 검토·분석하여 관련기관 ...

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    The purpose of this study was to examine whether climate change has had a nation-wide impact on peach production based on long-term time series data from 1980 to 2019 in Korea. We analyzed the structural change in peach production and the dynamic relationship between its production and cultivation area to provide information that can influence decision making by potential and existing fruit farms and related organizations. First, we found that large-scale natural disasters (freezing damage, typhoons) affected the structural change in the peach production in 2010. Second, the dynamic relationship between peach production and cultivation area was greatly diluted after 2010. The change in the cultivation area from 1980 to 2009 had a positive effect on production, but from 2011 to 2019, the peach cultivation area rapidly increased due to external diseconomy from the 2015 FTA closure support project. Third, due to the rapid increase in cultivation area, it is expected that an excess of nearly 300,000 tons of peaches will be produced in the near future. Therefore, the central government, local governments, and related organizations should take measures to reduce peach cultivation, mitigate the impact of climate change, and establish a timely information delivery system. On the other hand, peaches should be distributed abroad through quality improvement and export expansion. Through this, it is necessary to strengthen the competitiveness of peaches and maintain a stable supply to improve and stabilize farm household income in the long term.


    본 연구는 1980년부터 2019년까지의 장기 시계열자료를 기반으로 기후변화가 우리나라 복숭아 생산량에 전국적인 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고, 재배면적과의 동태적 관계를 명확히 검토·분석하여 관련기관 및 잠재·기존 농가의 다양한 의사결정에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 유의미한 정보를 제공하는데 있다. 분석결과, 첫째, 2010년 대규모의 자연재해(동해, 태풍)가 복숭아 생산량에 영향을 미쳤고 이로 인해 복숭아 생산량에 구조적 변화가 발생하였다. 둘째, 1980년부터 2009년까지 재배면적의 변화가 생산량의 변화에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나 2011년부터 2019년까지는 2015년 FTA폐원지원사업으로 인한 외부효과로 복숭아 재배면적이 급격하게 증가하면서 생산량과의 동태적 관계가 크게 희석되었다. 셋째, 재배면적의 급격한 증가로 머지않아 30만 톤에 육박하는 복숭아가 생산되어 과잉공급될 것으로 전망된다. 따라서 중앙정부·지방정부·유관기관 등은 복숭아 재배 권고자제, 기후변화 영향 경감대책 마련과 적시 정보전달체계를 구축해야 하며, 다른 한편으로 품질향상 및 수출확대 등을 통해 복숭아를 국외로 분산시켜야 한다. 이를 통해 복숭아의 경쟁력 강화, 안정적 공급으로 적정 수준의 가격을 유지할 수 있도록 하여 장기적으로 농가소득의 향상과 안정을 유인할 수 있도록 하여야 한다.

    - COLLAPSE
    April 2021